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宪问 第十四篇  

2011-08-10 13:27:34|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译宪问 第十四篇 共四十六章

宪问 第十四篇 共四十六章

 

14.1 问耻.:邦有道,;邦无道,.耻也; …,,,欲不行焉,可以为仁矣?…:可以为难矣! 仁则吾不知也.

本章论耻之道,评克伐怨欲犹不及于仁.本章依朱子分为两章,何晏集解合为一章,疑亦为所问所记.合一章较为有理.

问什么是可耻之事.老师说:当国有道时,只知食禄而无建树,当国无道时, 只知食禄而不能独善其身,都是可耻的事; …又问:好胜,自夸,怨恨,贪欲都能克制着不行,可算是仁吗? …老师说:可说是很难了,若说仁,那我就不知了.

:禄也; :好胜; :自夸; :怨恨; :贪欲;

:,字思.孔子弟子细孔子36,.隐而不仕.孔子为鲁司寇,原思为家宰.原宪:无财者谓之贫,学道而不能行者谓之病,若宪,贫也,非病也.

Xian asked how to define ‘disgrace’

Confucius said:When a state advocates the path of  The Righteous Way ,provide your service and accept its offer.When a state is rascal-like, to provide your service and accept its offeris a disgrace.

“to restrain: the fond of dominating,boasting,resentment and desirousness,can that be called the highest moral standard?”

Confucius said:That maybe called formidable to achieve.Whether it is the highest moral standard, I do not know.

14.2 :士而怀居,不足以为士矣!

本章言士当修身用世,不当怀居处之安.

老师说:一个士若系恋于安居享乐,就不配做个士了.

怀居:系恋安居躭于安乐也;

Confucius said:Aso called  genuine scholar who is  fond of  pursuing comfort can not be genuine at all.

14.3:邦有道,危言危行,邦无道,危行言孙.

本章言人处于有道时与无道时之不同.

老师说:国家有道时,严正其言行,国家无道时,严正其行,出言谦逊.

:严正高峻,正直; :谦逊;

Confucius said:When the moral standard of a state is high,proclaim moral rectitude loudly and act righteously.When the moral standard of a state is appalling,act righteously and speak modestly.

14.4:有德者必有言,有言者不必有德.仁者必有勇,勇者不必有仁.

本章明德与言,仁与勇的体会.

老师说:有德之人的言论都有道理,有道理言论的人不一定有道德的.仁人必定勇敢,勇敢的人不一定有仁德的.

Confucius said: A person of virture is surely eloquent. An eloquent person might not be a person of virtue. A benevolent person is surely brave. A brave person might not be benevolent.

14.5南宫适问于孔子:羿善射,荡舟,俱不得其死然. 躬稼而有天下; …夫子不答.南宫适,子曰:君子哉若人.尚德哉若人.

本章言恃强力能灭他国,却不得保其身.有大功德于人者则有天下.孔子南容.

南宫适问于孔子:羿精于射箭,力大能覆舟,都不得好死,治水,后稷教民稼穑,而有天下; 老师没有接话.南宫适退出之后,老师说:称得上君子的,是这人啊! 崇尚道德的,是这人啊!

南宫适:同括,南容,,子容.孔子弟子.孔子兄之壻也,参阅11.4; 羿:yi羿粤读魏,本章说的是穷氏族的酋长,善于射箭,相之位而自立,后为寒淀(dian粤读殿,本字意浅水的湖泊)所杀; :同傲,ao粤读傲,寒淀之子,力大能覆战船灭敌.自己亦不得善终,夏后少康所诛; :大禹治水有功,得天下; :后稷教民稼穑,其后至周武王而有天下;

Nangong Kuo spoke with the master:Yi was good at archery.Ao could tumble a boat,But they both died the hard way.Yu and Ji personally toiled their own crops and won the hearts of the whole world.confucius did not respond him. Nangong Kuo left,Confucius commented:What a man of virtue indeed! So well does he merit virtue.

14.6 :君子而不仁者有矣夫! 未有小人而仁者也!

本章言行仁之难也.

老师说:君子有时也会违仁呢! 从没见过小人会行仁之道啊!

Confucius said:There are people who are virtuous but sometimes not benevolent. However,we can not find people that are not benevolent but can be virtuous some of a time.

14.7:爱之能勿劳乎? 忠焉能勿诲乎?

本章言爱人以德,忠于人以劝,不可姑息.

老师说:爱他,能不使他勤勉于事吗?忠于他,能不谏劝教诲于他吗?

Confucius said:Should you care for someone, would you not encourage that person to be diligent? Should you be faithfully sincere to someone, would you not teach that person with the utmost effort?

14.8 :为命:裨谌草创之,世叔讨论之,行人子羽修饰之,东里子产润色之.

本章述郑国所作外交之辞命,郑重其事也.

老师说:郑国造作外交上的辞令,由先裨谌起刍稿,世叔讨论审议,由行人之官子羽修饰字句,最后再经东里子产加上辞藻的文采.

为命:外交上所用之辞命; 裨谌,世叔,子羽,子产:郑国大夫; 行人:为出使之东里:地名子产之居地; 润色:加以文采;

Confucius said:As a matter of legislating a decree,Bi Chen firstly made a draught,Shishu debated it,Foreign affair Ziyu phrased it with politicalization,Zicheng of Dongli would give it a final polish.

14.9 或问子产,:惠人也. 子西.:彼哉?彼哉? 管仲,:人也,伯氏 騈邑三百,饭疏食,没齿无怨言.

本章评子产,子西,管仲三人之为人.

有人问子产是怎样一个人,老师说:他是一位能施惠给民的人; …又问子西.老师说:他么,他么…(鄙视之义);…又问管仲,老师说:不外乎是个人吧,削夺了伯氏騈邑三百户,伯氏吃粗饭粗菜,一直至死,毫无怨言.

表楚大夫公子申,字西(*非本章之字西)孔子,明朝<<石刻圣迹图:子西阻封>>:楚昭王打算把书社之地封给孔子.宰相子西劝谏说:“国君的使节有像子贡的吗?辅相有像颜渊的吗?将帅有像子路的吗?官员有像宰予的吗?孔子得到封地以此为根据地,又有贤能的弟子辅佐,这不是国的福分啊!”.楚昭王就取消了封地给孔子的念头.孔子毋奈又从国回到.

惠人:心存惠爱于人民; 子西:春秋时有三个子西.,它申谋乱被杀,,大夫公子申,孔子,,子西,(本章指的)子产之同宗兄弟,相继执政; 彼哉:古代表示轻视之词,不値一谈之意; 伯氏 騈邑三百:伯氏 大夫,騈邑地名,伯氏有罪,管仲为相,削夺其采邑,伯氏终身疏食,管仲无怨言.

子产:公孙.国大夫.

管仲:夷吾,大夫,桓公霸诸侯.参阅3.22孔子管仲.

Someone asked about Zichan:Confucius said: A generous altruist.

Asked about Zixi. Confucius said:Oh,that fella! That fella!( the master disparagingly withholding his comment)

Again asked about Guang Zhong.

Confucius said:Quite a person.He took the town of Pian with its three hundred households from Bo,left him minimal and plain food to survive until all teeth fallen out(death), Bo found no chagrin in him.

14.10:贫而无怨,;富易无骄,.

本章言贫富二者之为人.

老师说:贫者能安于贫而无怨言是很难的.富者能居富而不骄是较容易的.

Confucius said:Poor and yet no complaints is hard,being rich and not prod is easy.

14.11:孟公绰,老则优,不可以为,大夫.

本章论孟公绰的器量.

老师说:孟公绰做赵魏二家的家臣之长,绰绰有余.但没有为滕薛两小国做大夫的器量.

孟公绰:大夫; 赵魏:; :家臣之长; :宽绰有余; 滕薛:鲁附近两个小诸侯国;

Confucius said:Meng Gongchuo has excessive ability when working as governor for the clans of Zhao and Wei.However he was not fit to be minister for the tiny states of Teng or Xue.

14.12 子路问成人,子曰:臧武仲之知,公绰之不欲,卞庄子之勇,冉求之艺,文之以礼乐,亦可以成人矣! …:今之成人者何必然!见利思义,见危授命,久要不忘平生之言,亦可以谓成人矣.

本章论一个人格完备的人的情况.

子路问怎样才算是一个人格完备的人.老师说:要有臧武仲的智慧,孟公绰的寡欲,卞庄子的勇敢,冉求的才艺,再加上有诗书礼乐的培养,也可算是人格完备了.老师又说:现今的成人又何必如此?只要能做到见利时想到义,看到国家危难能付出自己生命,与人有旧约而不忘记过去的诺言,这也就算得上是一个人格完备的人了.

成人:人格完备的人; 臧武仲:臧孙纥 大夫,有智慧,当年(550,襄公二十三年)他获罪出走,不久便回到他的封地防城,要挟氏立后.目的达到后,臧武仲便流亡.逃入国后,预料齐庄公不会长久而设法拒收庄公给的封地,庄公果遭不测,臧武仲没因此受连,被人誉为聪明人;; 公绰:孟公绰,大夫,廉洁寡欲; 卞庄子: 卞邑大夫,有勇,曾只身打虎; :修饰也; 授命:不爱其生,共赴危难; 久要:旧约; 平生之言:平日所许之诺言.

子路: 子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Zilu asked about the definition of a person of moral success.

Confucius said: As wise as Zang Wuzhong,as contented and void of desire  as Meng Gongchuo,as brave asBian ZhuangZi, as talented as RanQiu,and erudite with the rite and musicmight be defined as a person of moral success.The master then added:However today maybe not quite so.A person who in sight of gains can still remember his/her obligations,in face of dangerwill risk his/her life for the sake of righteousness,in the long standing poverty still not forsake his/her early principles…may also be defined as a person of moral success.

14.13 公叔文子公明贾:信乎?夫子不言,不笑,不取乎? …公明贾对曰:以告者过也,夫子时然后言,人不厌其言;乐然后笑,人不厌其笑;义然后取, 人不厌其取.子曰:其然,岂其然乎?

本章言公叔文子为人.

老师向公明贾公叔文子的为人.“真的么?公孙大夫不苟言,不苟笑,不贪取非分之利吗?”…公明贾:那是告诉你的人说得太过了.公孙大夫是当说的时候才说,人不讨厌他的话,当开怀的时候才笑,人不讨厌他的笑.在合理的情形下才收取应得的利,人不讨厌他的得利; …老师说:他是这样吗!难道他真的是这样吗?

公叔文子:大夫公孙拔.谥曰; 公明贾:;

Confucius asked Gongming Jia about Gong Shu Wenzi:Is it true that he neither speaks,laughs nor takes?

Gongming Jia replied:He who told you this was exaggerating.Wenzi speaks when it is the time for him to speak,therefore no one is tiresome of his speaking.he laughs when he is joyful,therefore no one is sick of his laughters,he takes what is right for him to take, therefore no one is envy of his takings.

The master said: WAs that so? Was it really like so?

14.14:臧武仲求为后于,虽曰不要君,吾不信也.

本章孔子臧武仲.

老师说:臧武仲以据守他的所封防邑,国要求立他的后代,虽说不是要挟于君,我不相信呢.

臧武仲:臧孙纥 大夫,有智慧,当年(550,鲁襄公二十三年)他获罪出走,不久便回到他的封地防城,要挟氏立后.目的达到后,臧武仲便流亡.逃入国后,预料齐庄公不会长久而设法拒收庄公给的封地,庄公果遭不测,臧武仲没因此受连,被人誉为聪明人; :地名,臧武仲之封邑,今之山东县东北,靠近之边界; 为后于:臧武仲有罪出莾于防城,要求立其后人于,许之,立其子.

Confucius said:Zang Wuzhong controlling the fief of Fangasked prince of Lu to appoint his descendants as senior ministers in Lu.Though it was said that the prince was not coerced into the arrangement, I do not believe that.

14.15:晋文公谲而不正,齐桓公正而不谲.

本章分别晋文,齐桓之正谲.

老师说:晋文公行事用权诈而不行正道.齐桓公行正道而不用权诈.

晋文公:重耳; :jue谲粤读决,诡诈的阴谋手段; 齐桓公:小白,齐桓,晋文皆以霸业,尊王攘夷.孔子评论其长短;

Confucius said:Duke wen of Jin was crafty but not justifiable.Duke Huan of Qi was righteous but not shrewd. 

14.16 子路:桓公公子纠,召忽死之,管仲不死; …:未仁乎? …子曰:桓公九合诸侯,不以兵车,管仲之力也.如其仁!如其仁!

本章赞管仲桓公以成霸业.

子路:桓公杀了公子纠,召忽自杀,管仲却不肯死,这不能说是仁人吧? …老师说:桓公九次会合诸侯,并非凭着共车多的武力,全是管仲在政治上的功劳(尊王攘夷).这就是他的仁!这就是他的仁!

公子纠:齐襄公无道被弒,鲍叔牙奉公子小白,管仲,召忽公子纠,兄弟争入国,公子纠被杀,召忽.管仲.鲍叔牙管仲,成霸主.

子路: 子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Zilu said:When Duke Huan of Qi slew brother grandee Jiu,Zhao Hu died with him,but Guan Zhong escaped death.

Zilu added :Was Guan Zhong in lack of virtue?

Confucius said:Duke Huan was able to bring all the nine states into alliance peacefully without the use of military forces,Guan Zhong deserved all credits.Such was his virtue! Such was his virtue!

14.17 子贡:管仲非仁者与,桓公公子纠,不能死,又相之; …子曰:管仲桓公,霸诸侯,一匡天下,民到于今受其赐,管仲,吾其被发左社矣!岂若匹夫匹妇之为谅也?自经于沟渎而莫之知也.

本章评论管仲虽非仁人,有功于天下.

子贡:管仲不是个仁人吧,桓公杀了公子纠,管仲公子纠之臣,不但不死,反又为桓公之相; …老师说:管仲辅助齐桓公,称霸于诸侯,使诸侯同能尊王攘夷,以正道于天下,使中国不沦于夷狄,人民到现在还受着他的恩惠,如果没有管仲,我们早就披着头发,袒着右臂,非衣冠之族的夷狄之人了.岂能同那一般人守小节的见解,自缢在沟渠之间,不为人所知么?

:正也,匡天下,即谓以{尊王攘夷}之名,正天下也; :无也; 自经:自缢;

子贡: 端木赐卫国人.(贡本作赣),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子贡有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于.

Zigong said:Guan Zhong,should be  considered a man in lack of virtue.When Duke Huan slew his brother Jiu,Guan Zhong did not die along with him,whereas he became prime minister for the duke of Huan.

Confucius said:Guan Zhong helped Duke Huan to become leader of all vassals,united and rectified the whole world,his feats have hitherto been beneficial to us all.Without Guan Zhong,we should now wear our hair disheveled,and fold our clothes to bare our left (like barbarians). How can we consider only the view of an  ordinary man or woman is correct? For the sake of an ideological fidelity commitment,to commit suicide in a stream of ditch,leaving no one knowing about them?

14.18 公叔文子之臣大夫僎,文子同升诸公.孔子闻之曰:可以谓文矣.

本章孔子公叔文子能荐贤于朝,可称得上是{}.

公叔文子的家臣大夫,与文子同升公朝为臣.老师听到此事,:文子这人,可谥称{}.

:国大夫本为公叔文子之家臣,文子荐之,与之同列于公朝,孔子美之.

{}:追封谥号谓贤能之士

Gongshu Wenzi became a of wei minister together with his retainer Xun. When Confucius heard of that, Said:Its appropriate to confer Wenzi the posthumous title {Wen} (erudite)

14.19 卫灵公之无道也.康子:夫如是奚而不丧?孔子曰:仲叔圉治宾客,祝鮀治宗庙,王孙贾治军旅,夫如是,奚其丧?

本章言治国在能任贤用才.

老师说及卫灵公无道之事,季康子说:既然这样,为何不丧失其君位呢? …孔子:卫国有贤臣仲叔圉掌礼宾之事,祝鮀治理宗庙之事,王孙贾治军旅,既然能用贤才,怎会失去君位呢?

奚而不丧:为何不丧失其位; 仲叔圉:卫国贤臣; 祝鮀: 子鱼,左传称祝佗,卫大夫,官大祝.有口才; 王孙贾:大夫,参阅3.13;

康子:复姓季孙.谥曰.?-468国大夫正卿事鲁哀公,此时国公室衰弱.季孙族系之名乃公子季友之后.亦称为季氏.季康子位高权重,是当时国的权臣. {历史背景}季康子季孙肥,春秋时期国的正卿.姬姓,季氏,.谥康.史称季康子.季孙肥[]字则为尊称,所以说季孙并不是氏称,季孙某仅限于对宗主的称谓而已,宗族一般成员只能称季某.季孙肥季氏,而非季孙氏.季平子季桓子,季桓子季康子.季氏为首的三桓强盛,季氏宗主季康子位高权重,是当时国的权臣.再叙历史上此时孔子门生的政迹:鲁定公十五年,公薨,哀公蒋.当时,季桓子为首的{三桓}甚为强盛.哀公二年,季桓子,子肥,是为季康子.当时的,,国两个大国的夹缝里生存,处境不是很好.{三桓}之间的关系也不是很融洽,季康子的专权,让其它二桓:叔孙氏,孟氏很不满.哀公七年(486),(夫差)无礼,强逼国贡献百牢(一百条牢[肉牛];礼制定各诸侯贡礼不能超过十二牢),国被迫贡献,继而国太宰(pi,本字解形大也)季康子来朝见他,虽然国不如国强,康子还是拒绝了,似乎很有气节,实则他觉得国虽大却难成气候,最终仍是无法称霸的,故无惧于他.哀公十一年(482),国入侵,叔孙,孟氏季氏专权,不肯听从季康子的号令将人拦在国土之外.季康子任用孔子的弟子冉有,击退了,接着会同国在艾陵大败,史称艾陵之战.然而此战之后,季康子却加紧战备,以防国再来.哀公十一年,季康子使公华,公宾,公林以币(古代赠送宾客或用于祭祀的束帛.币帛)来迎接孔子回国.至此,{三桓}逐出国的孔子终于得以回,并完成他晚年修书的事业.可以说,季康子间接地成全了孔夫子作为圣人的大业.哀公十二年,季康子[田赋],改革税赋,进一步加速礼崩乐坏的过程,这当然是孔子不愿意看到的.哀公十六年(479),孔子.鲁定公时期,孔子是与三桓斗争的重要权臣,但是结果还是被强大的三桓打败,哀公二十七年,469,季康子.当年(469),季康子,叔孙文子,孟武伯跟随哀公后庸(越王勾践)平阳开会,季康子会中讨论问题谈到子贡.季康子:假如现在子贡在这里,我们根本不会与蛮夷(越国)订这种盟约.孟武伯:的确不错,那为什么不叫子贡? 季康子:我马上就叫子贡;孙叔文子:即使是到了以后,也不要忘记今天的说话(故此左氏春秋亦有记载此事也); …同年夏天四月己亥日,季康子.鲁哀公虽然亲自吊唁,然所行的却是低一级不完备的礼节.

卫灵公:姬姓,卫氏,(?-493)国第28代国君, 534-493年在位.(卫襄公之子,卫后庄公之父,卫出公之祖父).灵公是著名昏君,其爱屠好男宠,多猜忌,脾气暴躁,但是,他擅长知人,用人.

When Confucius  talked about Duke Ling of Wei being walking away from the righteous path,Ji Kang Zi asked:In such case, why has he not lost his throne?

Confucius said:He has Zhongshu Yu to deal with foreign affairs (envoys and guests),Zhu Tuo in charge of the ancestral temple,Wangsun Jia to lead the army,in such cases,how would he lose his throne?

14.20 :其言之不怍,则为之也难.

本章言凡人言不惭,必难做到.

老师说:凡人大言不惭,就难以做得到.

:zuo粤读昨,惭愧;

Confucius said:He who is not modest in his talking, finds difficulties in doing most of the things.

14.21 陈成子简公,孔子沐浴而朝,告于哀公:陈桓弑其君,请讨之! …公曰:告夫三子者; …孔子:以吾从大夫之后,不敢不告也; …君曰:[告夫三子者!]之三子告,不可;…孔子:以吾从大夫之后,不敢不告也.

本章记孔子在朝事君之道.困难重重.

陈成子弒了齐简公,孔子沐浴斋戒上朝,告于鲁哀公:陈成子弒了他的国君,请出兵讨伐他;…哀公:去告诉那三家大夫;…孔子:因我也在大夫之后,这种大事,不敢不告于君啊!…君说:去告诉三家大夫;…孔子往告诉三家大夫;…三家大夫说:不可出兵讨伐;…孔子:因我也在大夫之后,不敢不告啊!

陈成子:齐大夫,又名田成子; 简公:君名; 三子:三家大夫,季孙子,仲孙子,孟孙子; 不敢不告:言弒君之贼,法所必讨,大夫谋国,义所当告.

Duke Jian of Qi was assassinated by Chen Cheng Zi,Confucius fast and bathed , went to court and told Duke Ai of Lu.:Chen Heng has slain his prince.Please send punitive expedition.

Duke Ai said:Infrom the three chiefs.

Confucius said:Following in the wake of great ministers,I dared not to leave suck a matter untold.Yet the prince said go to inform the three chiefs.

Confucius went to inform the three chiefs.They refused to pursue operation.

Confucius said: Following in the wake of great ministers,I dared not to leave such a matter untold.

14.22 子路问事君::勿欺也,而犯之.

本章言事君之道.

子路问事奉国君之道.老师说:不可欺骗君上,且要犯颜直谏.

犯之:犯颜直谏;

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Zilu asked about serving the prince.

Confucius said: Do not swindle him.Do not fear to upset him when telling him the truth.

14.23:君子上达,小人下达.

本章言君子与小人为人之不同.

老师说:君子日进乎高明,上通达于天理,小人日趋向下流,徇天于欲望.

上达:达于天理,日进乎高明; 下达:下徇于人欲,日趋下流;

Confucius said:A moral rectitude person knows the heavenly mandate of righteousness. A villain knows how to fulfil earthly desires of greed.

14.24:古之学者为己,今之学者为人.

本章言古今之为学的目的不同.

老师说:古代为学的人,是为着修养自已,进德日新.现在为学的人,是为沽名钓誉,着重他人的评价.

Confucius said:In ancient times,people anxious to learn for the sake to improve themselves.Nowadays people anxious to improve themselves for the sake to impress others.

14.25 蘧伯玉使人于孔子.孔子与之坐而问焉,:夫子何为? 对曰:夫子欲寡其过而未能也;…使者出,子曰:使乎! 使乎!

本章孔子蘧伯玉使者之德.

蘧伯玉派遣使者到孔子处问候,孔子和他一起坐着,孔子:大夫做些什么? …使者答道:大夫想要减少自己的过失,但总觉还未能做到呢! …使者辞出,孔子:好一位使者啊,好一位使者啊.

蘧伯玉:大夫,伯玉,孔子卫国,曾入住他的家; 夫子:蘧伯玉;欲寡其过而未能:言其但欲寡过而犹未得.

Qi Boyu sent a messenger to Confucius . Confucius sat with him and asked:What is the master doing?

The messenger replied:The master is attempting to make his faults fewer,but is yet to succeed.

When the messenger had left, Confucius said: What a messenger! What a messenger!

14.26:不在其位,不谋其政.

本章重出{泰伯篇},不在职位,不应参与该政务.参阅8.14

Confucius said:He who is not in that particular office,would not discuss its policies.

14.27曾子:君子思不出其位.

本章记曾子引易经第伍拾贰之艮卦象辞,言为政者当专于己职.

曾子:君子思虑所及,当不越出自己的职守.

曾子:子舆505-436武城,曾点之子.父子皆为孔子弟子.事亲至孝.悟圣道一贯之旨.以其学传子思(孔子孙儿),后世称为宗圣.作曾子十八篇.孔子孙儿孔伋之师也,子思之儒.孔伋曾子孝道矣.

Zengzi said:A superior person would not plan for matters that are beyond his duties.

14.28:君子耻其言而过其行.

本章言君子言行一致也.

老师说:君子以为耻的是他所说的超过他所做的.

Confucius said:A responsible person is ashamed of saying more than what he can do.

14.29:君子道者三,我无能焉! 仁者不忧,知者不惑,勇者不惧; …子贡:夫子自道也.

本章言君子之道,仁智勇三德行.

老师说:君子之道有三种,我未能做到呢! 仁者存心无私故不忧,知者润明事理故不惑,勇者正气充足故不惧; …子贡:老师说的正是他自己啊!

子贡:端木赐卫国人.(贡本作赣),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子贡有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于.

Confucius said:A superior person has three successes. However I can achieve none of them.A benevolent person is free of worries,a wise person is free of doubts and and bold person is free of fears.

Ziggong said:Our master is only depicting himself.

14.30 子贡方人,子曰:也贤乎哉?夫我则不暇.

本章勉子贡,人当尽其在我,何须比人.

子贡喜欢比较人的长短,老师说:!自己是不是都做好算是贤者了呢? 如是我,那有闲工夫去研究别的好坏长短呢.

方人:比较人之长短;

子贡: 端木赐卫国人.(贡本作赣),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子贡有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于.

Ziggong was fond of criticizing others.

Confucius said:Ci Oh Ci! Are you perfect yourself? I am not,therefore I have no time for that.

14.31:不患人之不己知,患其不能也.

本章勉人力求诸己,不必忧人之不知.此章凡四出,孔子叮咛子弟自修也.参阅1.16

老师说:不忧虑别人不知道我的才能,忧虑的是自己有什么不能的.

Confucius said:I do not worry if people do not know my ability.I am only concerned if my ability does meet up with people’s expectation.

14.32:不逆诈,不亿不信;抑亦先觉者,是贤乎?

本章戒人不可逆测揣想,临事能先知贤也.

老师说:不去事先预测人会诈骗,不事先揣度别人之不信.但能在临事之际,先察觉到有诈与不信,这不就是贤人吗?

逆诈:预测人之有诈; 亿不信:预先揣测其不信; :但是;

Confucius said: He who is neither presuppositional about others being deceitful,nor harbours a groundless suspicionagainst their dishonesty,and yet can apprehend a swindler readily,is he not a man of able?

14.33微生亩孔子:何谓是栖栖者与?无乃为佞乎? …孔子:非敢为佞也,疾固也.

本章明孔子求道于天下,知其不可为而为之.

微生亩(国长者)孔子:!为什么这样不遑宁处的样子呢? 未免是卖弄口才取悦于人吗? …孔子:不敢以口才卖弄,是我太固执罢了.

微生亩:微生,国隐士,齿尊于孔子; 栖栖:xi栖粤读栖,忙碌不安定的样子; :务于善辩以取悦于人; 疾固;病在自己(孔子自批)之固执也.

Weisheng Mu asked Confucius:Why are you so busy?Or is it nothing more than a flamboyant eloquence?

Confucius said:I dare not be so,its only a sickness of  my obstinacy.

14.34:骥不称其力.称其德也.

本章比喻人应重德胜于量才.

老师说:千里马并不称扬牠的力能行速,却是称扬他的德性驯良.

:良驹,日行千里,甚速,其德驯良;

Confucius said:A steed is not valued for its strength, but its tamed quality.

14.35或曰:以德报怨,何如? 子曰:何以报德? 以直报怨,以德报德.

本章斥以德报怨为伪.

有人问:与人有怨恨,以恩德回报他,这样做好吗? …老师说:那怎样去报答对你有恩德的人呢?应该以公平正直的态度去回报有怨恨的人,以恩德去报答对你有恩德的人.

:公平正直;

Someone asked:To requite evil with good, How about that?

Confucius said:What about requiting the good? Requite evil with justice.Requite good with good.

14.36:莫我知也夫? …子贡:其莫知子也? …子曰:不怨天,不尤人,下学而上达;知我者其天乎?

本章孔子自叹不遇.

老师说:无人能知我吧? …子贡:什么没有人知道老师呢? …老师说:我道不行,既不怨于天,也不归罪于人,我下学人事,上达天理,到达天人合一境界,世人已不能知,只有天知道了吧?

下学上达:下学人事上达天理;

Confucius said:Alas! no one on earth understands me!

Zigong asked:How come no one understands you?

The master said:I do not blame heaven nor I complain anyone on earth.My studies though are earthly yet they are compatible with the mandate of heaven.Thats why only heaven understands me!

14.37公伯寮子路季孙,子服景伯以告,:夫子固有惑志于公伯寮,吾力犹能肆诸市朝;…子曰:道之将行也与?命也.道之将废也与?命也.公伯寮其如命何?

本章就子路被谗之事,训君子应当以义安命,以晓景伯,子路,伯寮.

公伯寮季孙处说子路的坏话,子服景伯将此事告知孔子,:季孙大夫已经听信伯寮的谗,子路起了疑惑.我能使季孙明白真相,公伯寮杀了,陈尸于市; …老师说:道能够行于世呢,是天意自然之理啊,道将要废除于世也是天意自然之理啊! 公伯寮又能将天意怎样呢?

公伯寮:公伯,子周,国人.孔子学生; :同诉,诬谤也; 子服景伯:名何,国大夫; 子服景伯:子服民,,,大夫服何是也; 夫子:本章指季孙; 肆诸市朝:,陈尸也,能使季孙,陈其尸于市也;

Gongbo Lido calumniated Zilu in front of Jisun.

Zifu Jinbo told Confucius: The old man was surely bewildered by Gongbo Lido,but I still have enough strength to expose his corpse in the market.

Confucius said:If my principles are to prevail in the world,it is the will of heaven. If they are to fall to the ground, it is also the will of heaven. Can Gongbo Lido fight against the will of Heaven?

14.38:贤者辟世,其次辟地,其次辟色,其次辟言.

本章言贤者不苟合于世.

老师说:贤者见天下无道,避世而隠,其次避开此乱地,其次见人的礼貌面色不正即避开, 其次见人的言语不逊亦速避开.

:同避;

Confucius said:The able men shun the world when its turbulent,the next best one shun the land when its not peaceful,the one after that shun the countenance when its impolite, the last one shun the words when they are rude. Seven men have had shunned already!

14.39:作者七人矣!

本章承上章述贤者见几而起避世而去者已有七人矣.

老师说:见几而起避去者已有七人了.

:起而避开;

14.40子路宿于石门,晨门曰:奚自? :孔氏; :是知其不可而之者与?

本章记世人对孔子的印像.

子路石门外住了一宿,第二天一早进城,守门的人说:你从何处来? …子路:孔氏;…守门的说:就是那位明知不可的人么?

石门:鲁城外门; 晨门:守门者,掌晨夜开关城门者;

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Zilu spent a night at Shimen.The city gate watcher asked him:Where do you cone from?

Zilu replied:From Master Kung.

The gate watcher said: Is he the master who consistently  pursue doing what he knows he could not succeed?

14.41击磬于,有荷蒉而过孔氏之门者,:有心哉, 击磬乎! …旣而曰:鄙哉!硁硁乎!莫己知也,斯已而已矣![深则厉,浅则揭]…子曰:果哉!末之难矣.

本章记隠者闻磬而知孔子,犹不明其意也.

孔子国正敲磬,有个背着盛泥土草筐的人,孔子的门前经过,:这是位有思想的人击磬啊! …一会儿又说:鄙陋得很啊!心志那样的固执不变,旣然无人知道自己嘛,该停止就应停止算了.所谓[遇到深水,就和衣涉水;遇着浅水,就提衣而渡];…老师说:这人果然是忘世而隐,他那知世道之难啊;(老师喻意人在江瑚身不犹己)

明朝<<石刻圣迹图:适卫击磬>>:孔子经过蒲地来到,与弟子们击磬.有个挑着草筐经过孔子门口的人说:“击磬的人有心思啊!”,过了一会又说:“磬声,可鄙呀!没有人了解自己就算了,水深就穿着衣服涉过去,水浅就撩起衣服走过去.”孔子:“好果断啊!但他不知道我的难处

:乐器; 荷蒉:,背负;,草制盛土的用器; 硁硁乎:击石之声,坚固确实之义,荷蒉之人从孔子敲磬的声中,知其为不随世宜而通权达变之人; 斯已而已: ,止也;应该止的就止吧; 深则厉,浅则揭:乃诗经{卫风}匏有苦叶之句.言过深水,就以衣涉水而过,遇到浅水,就提衣而渡,谓应世深浅要适时宜对也;

Confucius was striking the Qing(a percussion instrument)in Wei one day,a man carrying a straw basket passed his door and said:What a mind burdened with thoughts! Like the sound of his Qing.

A moment later, he added:So remote yet sounds so persistent! Should you  not be understood,you should therefore understand your own self.When the water is deep, advance in it with your clothes on, when water is shallow,ust lift up your wearings.

Confucius said:Is it really so simple to achieve indeed?! Justsimply  not understanding the difficulties!

14.42子张:书云[高宗谅阴,三年不言]何谓也? …子曰:何必高宗?古之人皆然,君薨,百官总己以听于家宰三年.

本章述天子诸侯居丧之礼.

子张:尚书载[商高宗居丧,住在梁闇里三年不言]是什么意义呢? …老师说:何必一定是高宗如此,古代的没有一个不是如此,国君死了,朝廷的百官总摄自己的职务听从太宰的命令,共历三年.

高宗谅阴:见尚书{无逸篇},高宗 商王武丁是也,谅阴:天子居丧之称也,三年不施政令,谅阴又作梁闇,天子居丧之芦,一梁支脊而无楹柱,茅垂于地,从旁出入曰梁闇; :帝王之死; 总己:总摄己职; 家宰:太宰也;

子张:颛孙,孔子弟子.孔子48.陈国人,孔子曾说过师也过(11.14),师也辟(11.16);后世有子张之儒派.

Zizhang said:The book of History recored‘Gaozong when mourning for the death of his father ,did not speak for three years’,what does that mean?

Confucius said: Not only Gaozong in particular,The ancients all were the same.Whenever a prince died,the whole office would take orders from the governor of the prince family affairs.

14.43:上好礼则民易使也.

本章言为政在上者好礼,则政令易于民彻.

老师说:在上位当政者若好礼,那么人民就容易驱使了.

Confucius said:When authorities are fond of observing strictly the rites, their people will be  easy to lead.

14.44子路问君子.子曰:修己以敬,…:如斯而已乎? …:修己以安人;…: 如斯而已乎?…:修己以安百姓.修己以安百姓,尧舜其犹病诸?

本章言君子之道,在修己安人.

子路问怎样做才算是君子执政.老师说:以谨敬合礼来修养自己;…子路再问:这样就够了么?…老师说:修养好自己,再去安定别人;…子路又问:像这样就够了么?…老师说:修养好自己,进一步去使百姓安定.修养自己,再去安定百姓,尧舜都恐怕还不能做到呢.

修己以敬:自己先要修养,谨记合乎礼; 安人:安定别人;

子路: 子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Zilu asked about how to achieve a Superior Character.

Confucius said: Anyone who can cultivate oneself to the utmost capacity, to become respectful.

Zilu asked: Is that all?

Confucius said: to cultivate oneself to give ease to others.

Zilu said: Is that all!

The master said:to cultivate oneself to give ease and settle all people…even Yao and Shun had found it difficult to achieve!

14.45 原壤夷俟,:幼而不孙弟,长而无述焉,老而不死,!以杖叩其胫(jing粤读茎)

本章责原壤无礼.

原壤蹲着等待孔子到来,老师说:你小时候就不知道逊让长上,长大后,又没有什么直得称道的,到老年还没死去,你真是个伤风败俗的人啊! …老师用手杖轻敲他的小腿.

原壤:孔子之故人,{礼记}记载他母死而歌,盖谓老子之流,自放于礼法之外; 夷俟(si粤读自):,蹲着;,等待; 无述:没有什么直得称道的; :败常乱俗之人; 叩其胫:jing粤读茎,敲打其小腿.

Yuan Rang was crouchingsprawlingly like a barbarian to wait for confucius to arrive.

Confucius came and said:You did not know the rules of propriety when young, and achieved nothing as adult,you merely live on getting older staying alive,a real ruiner indeed!

Confucius knocked his shin with his staff.

14.46阙党童子将命,或问之曰:益者与? 子曰:吾见其居于位也.见其与先生并行也,非求益者也,欲速成者也.

本章记阙党童子不知礼让.

阙党的一个童子,替主客传话,有人问道:这童子有否长进之望呢?…老师说:我见他坐在成年人的位子上,又和长辈并肩而走,不是像在道德学问上求长进,只是想快些成长为大人罢了.

阙党:堂名(会所),孔子之故里,阙里; 将命:传达宾主之辞命; 居于位:古代礼节,孩童须隔坐,成人才有位.童子坐成人位是无礼行; 益者与:有否长进之望;

A boy from the village of Que cam with an errand,someone asked:Is the boy improving himself?

Confucius said:I saw him sitting among the adults’ seas, walking shoulder to shoulder along with his seniors, he was not eager to improve himself, he was only anxious to become equal with the other.

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