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子路 第十三篇  

2011-08-10 14:05:14|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译子路 第十三篇 共三十章

子路 第十三篇 共三十章

 

13.1 子路问政.子曰:先之,劳之; …请益; …:无倦.

本章言为政当身先其民而劳.起领导作用.

子路问为政之道,老师说:领导人民,凡事自已要比人民先实行,先劳苦; …子路请求多说一点; …老师说:要能持久不倦怠.

先之劳之:言为政贵者能以身先其民而劳;

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Zilu asked about how to govern.

Confucius said:You should be in the van of your people. Be laborious too.

‘Please explain more’Zilu begged.

Confucius said:Never feel tiresome.

13.2 仲弓季氏,问政.子曰:先有司,赦小过,举贤才; …:焉知贤才而举之? …:举尔所知,尔所不知,人其舍诸?

本章言为政要能举贤才.

仲弓做了季氏家臣,问为政之道.老师说:凡事自己要比属下的官员们率先躬行.有小的过失,当宽免他们.举用有德有能的人; …仲弓:怎知道有贤才而举用他们呢? …老师说:举用你所知道的.你所不知道的,别人会舍弃他们不来推荐吗?

先有司:以身率先百官; 贤才:有德和能之人; 人其舍诸:人能舍弃他吗?

仲弓: ,仲弓,比孔子细二十九岁,国人.冉雍出身贫贱,他的父亲行为不良,有人以此作为攻击冉雍的借口.孔子弟子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).参阅6.4

When Zhonggong was employed as director for the Ji Clan(one of the highest aristocracies of the state Lu)asked the master for administration strategy.

Confucius said:Let junior officers manage on their own. Pardon small mistakes,recommend virtuous as well as talented personnel for promotion.

Zhonggong asked:Where do I find virtuous and talented personnel to recommend?

Confucius said:Recommend those you already knew. For those unknown to you,do you think others would forsake them?(not recommend them to you)

13.3子路:君待而为政,将奚先?…:必也正名乎?…子路:有是哉?之迂也!奚其正!…:野哉!.君子于其所不知,盖阙如也.名不正则言不顺,言不顺则事不成,事不成则礼乐不兴,礼乐不兴则刑罚不中,刑罚不中则民无所措手足,故君子名之必可言也.言之必可行也.君子于其言,无所苟而已矣!

本章言孔子鍳于国父子争君位,在上不义,何能为政.

子路:卫君正等待老师去从政,老师将以何事为先? …老师说:那必先将名分弄正,我才能从政啊! …子路说:有此必要么?老师真是拘泥事理不切实际,有什么名好正呢?…老师说:真是粗野不明事理的! 君子对于所不知道的,就该缺而不说.须知明分不正,说出来就不顺.说的不顺,事就做不成.事不成,礼乐便不能推行.礼乐不行刑罚就不得当. 刑罚不得当,人民将会手足无措.不知怎样做才对.因此君子对有正确的名分,才好说话.说出来才行得通.君子对自己所说的,没有苟且随便的啊!

卫君:出公辄,其父蒯瞶流亡在外,人立而拒之.是君不君,臣不臣,父不父,子不子也; 正名:正其名分如君君,臣臣,父父,子子; :言拘于名理,不切实际; :鄙俗不知义理,率尔妄言; 阙如:,缺也.缺而不说也; 言不顺:话不合乎理; :合乎理;无所苟:一名一言皆不可苟且随便; :仲由; :何也;

蒯瞶立位卫庄公子路之死载于左传鲁哀公十五年(480)

国乱,太子蒯瞶.人立蒯瞶之子出公以拒蒯瞶.孔子臣父子不正名之谓也.

{左传}:孔圉(yu圉粤读乳本字义养马的地方)娶了卫国太子蒯瞶的姊姊(伯姬)为妻.生一子名孔悝.孔圉的仆人(或曰:)良夫身材魁梧面貌英俊.孔圉死后,浑良夫就跟女主人通奸.当时蒯瞶亡命在.()浑良夫去看他.蒯瞶浑良夫许诺说:假如你能使我回国作君主,我可以让你穿大夫的衣冠坐大夫的车驾.另外再赦免你三次死罪;…浑良夫蒯瞶订约之后,就为蒯瞶孔姬请求.闰月,浑良夫蒯瞶同车进入.下禢在孔氏的别庄.当天黄昏时刻,浑良夫蒯瞶二人,化装坐上一辆车,罗太赶车到孔氏.孔氏家臣栾宁问他们是什么人,罗太监谎称说:是亲戚家的两位妇女;…骗进大门后直入孔姬寝室.他们一行吃完晚饭后,孔姬就以戈为手杖走在前面,太子率领五名带着盔甲的随从,另外又用车拉着订盟用的公猪跟在后面,在厕所追上孔悝强廹订盟约.并且威胁他一同登上高殿;…栾宁想要喝酒,可是在肉还没烧熟时,就得到发生变乱的消息.于是他就跑到子路那里去通知,并且叫召获准备马车,把大家召集来以后举兵共享酒肉.大家酒足饭饱之后,就护驾卫出公逃来.子路将要进入都时,子羔出来说:城门已经关上了;…子路:让我姑且到门上看看吧!…子羔:权力不在我,我不愿意惹这个祸;…子路:你既然拿孔氏的俸禄,就不要逃避孔氏的灾难;…于是子羔才出来.子路刚走到入城门,城门就被关上了,而且改由公孙敢守门.公孙敢:不可以进去了;…子路:你是公孙敢!为自己的利害而逃避祸难,假如是我仲由绝不会那样作.因为一个人吃主人的俸禄,就一定要拿出良心为主人解决灾难;…可巧这时有位使者出城,子路乃乘隙进入城内说:太子何必用孔悝?即使把孔悝杀死,也必然有人继孔悝之后跟太子决战.子路又说:太子没有勇气,假如用火把高台烧毁一半,他们必定会把孔悝放出;…蒯瞶听了这话很害怕.就命令石乞,孟黡(yan粤读掩,本字义黑痣)下去抵抗子路.他们二人用戈猛攻子路.结果竟把子路的帽缨(ying缨粤读英,丝线等制成穗状装饰物)砍掉,这时子路:君子死不足惜,但是死时必要戴上帽子,…于是子路就戴好了帽子立好了帽缨才壮烈成仁.(左传原文,子路:君子死,冠不免;…结缨而死); …孔子知道卫国发生内乱之后就说:高柴(参阅11.16)一定会回来.子路必然殉难;…后来孔悝就立了蒯瞶国君,便是卫庄公,出公辄的父亲,孔悝的舅父了.翌年,周敬王四十一,鲁哀公十六年夏四月 己丑(今农历二月十八日)孔子,鲁城城北泗.

:子路子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙,野而好勇.事亲孝.大夫:孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬()良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路不应遂被害.

Zilu said: The prince of Wei is waiting for you to be his governor of Wei.Do master have priorities?

Confucius said:Of courseThe verification of appropriate title is the utmost  priority.

Zilu said: Is that so! How very pedantic it is.Why must name be verified?

Confucius said: Oh Zhong You, how uncivilized is your view. On matters that one does not know, a superior man shows a cautious silence. If subject matter is not rectitudinous, its speech cannot be cogent When its speech is not cogent,operation therefore will not be successful.When operation fails to succeed,rite and music do not flourish.When rite and music do not flourish,law of punishment  will lose itsjustice.and when law of punishment lose its justice,people do not know how to make plans for their hands and feet.Thats why a superior man considers it necessary that only title of a rectitudinous matter  can be spoken of.. and when its spoken, its therefore workable for sure. A superior person considers his speech/promise would not be a perfunctorily careless one.

13.4 樊迟请学稼.子曰:吾不如老农; …请学为圃; …:吾不如老圃; …樊迟, 子曰人哉!须也.上好礼则民莫敢不敬,上好义则民莫敢不服,上好信则民莫敢不用:小情.夫如是,则四方之民,襁负其子而至矣!焉用稼?

本章孔子阐扬儒家思想.为政在礼义,稼穑乃细民之事.

樊迟请学种植五谷的方法,老师说:我不如老农夫; …樊迟又请学种植蔬菜方法,老师说:我不如种菜的人; …樊迟退出后.老师说:真是个乡野的细民.樊须这人啊!在上位的人好礼,人民没有敢不恭敬的,在上位的人好义, 人民没有敢不服从的,在上位的人好信,人民没有敢不以忠诚真实对上,政治上能做到这样,四方的人民,都会背着孩子来了. 为政的人何必自己要去学种田种菜呢?

:种植五谷也; :种植菜蔬也; 小人:细民; 用情:以诚实; 襁负:以布缕负小孩于背也;

樊迟:,子迟,故亦作樊迟.515-?鲁人,孔子弟子,仕于季氏.

Fan Chi begged to learn agriculture.

Confucius said:I am not as good as an old farmer.Fan Chi wished to learn market gardening.

Confucius said:I am not as good as an old gardener. 

Fan Chi left. The master said: How junior indeed is Fan Chi! If the authority above is fond of propriety,people below would not dare not to be respectful. If the authority above is fond of righteousness, the people below will not dare to disobey, if the authority above is fond of integrity, the people below would not dare to pretend.Then people from four corners will come to him.carrying their children on their backs,what need would then be for us to learnthe knowledge of farming?

13.5 子曰:诵诗三百,授之以政,不达,使于四方,不能专对;虽多亦奚以?

本章言学诗在能言致用.通达为政之道.

老师说:读了诗经三百首,如授给他政事,不能够治理,派他出使到四方的国家去,不能单独应对,虽然诗读的多,又有什么用呢?

不达:不能明达治理; 专对:单独能应对; :什么

Confucius said:Although a person may be able to recite all three hundred poems of the book of poetry, yetif appoint that person with an official duty, he/she neither knows how to act when put to govern,nor can he/she answer on their own when sent on mission to four corners,despite the eruditeness of his/her academics,of what use is it for them?

13.6 子曰:其身正,不令而行;其身不正,虽令不从.

本章言为政者,当先正己身.

老师说:在上位的本身做事公正,不待下令发动,人民自然会去做了. 在上位的己身做事不公不正,虽然下令,人民也不会应从的.

:法律;

Confucius said: When a ruler is moral rectitude,his plans will all be workable without giving orders.If the ruler is not moral rectitude, even orders are given,they will be followed by no one.

13.7子曰:鲁卫.兄弟也.

本章评鲁国 卫国之政治相似.

老师说:\鲁国卫国的政治策略,兄弟一样(出自一家)

鲁卫:鲁国,周公之后,卫国,康叔之后.本为儿兄弟之邦.

Confucius said:The politics of Lu and Wei,brotherhoods alike.

`13.8 子谓卫公子荆善居室.始有曰:苟合矣! …少有曰:苟完矣! …富有曰:苟美矣!

本章评卫公子荆循序渐进之美德.

老师评论卫公子荆很会治理家业.在他开业时说:勉强凑合能用就好了. 稍多的时候,他说:差不多完备了! 到了很富足的时候他说:勉强算是够完美了!

卫公子荆:卫国大夫; 善居室:很会治理家业; :暂且.

Talking about Jing the master of the state of Wei,Confucius said:He managed the economy of his family business well.When he began to have means,he said its plenty.when he grew a little better, he said its fairly complete.When he became rich, he said its almost perfect.

Connotation:Always Happy is the person who is always content

13.9 子适,冉有.子曰:庶矣哉! …冉有:旣庶矣,又何加焉? …:富之! …: 旣富矣,又何加焉? …:教之!

本章言治国之阶程.

孔子前往卫国,冉有驾着车子,老师说:人口真多啊! …冉有:人口旣已众多,应该再做什么呢? …老师说:要使人民富足; …冉有:人民旣已富足了,应该再做什么 呢? …老师说:要教化他们了.

:往也; :驾车也; :人口众多.

冉有:522-489,子有,亦称冉有又称有子,孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)有才艺,性谦退,季氏之宰.参阅11.15

Confucius was on the way to Wei.Ran You was driving his carriage for him. The master said:What a dense population here!

Ran You said:Since the people are numerous,what should be done next to upgrade the state?

Confucius said:suffice the people.

Ran You said:And when they are sufficed,what comes next?

Confucius said: civilize them.

13.10 :苟有用我者朞月而可也,三年有成.

本章孔子叹当时莫能用己也.

老师说:如果有用我治理国,一周年就可以了.三年可以成功.

朞月:朞同期.期月,周一岁之月,即一年也; 

Confucius said:If I were employed in the government,twelve months I can put all things in order.In three years, I can achieve success.

13.11:[善人为邦百年,亦可以胜残去杀矣] 诚哉!是言也.

本章言善人治国,可化民于善.

老师说:古人话,善人相继主持国政,经过百年,可使残暴的人变善.国家就可废除杀人的刑法了; …这话说得真对啊!

胜残去杀:化残暴的人不为恶,可去除刑杀之罚也;

Confucius said:‘If a humane ruler governs a , state for a century, kindness will overcome cruelty, and killings will become obsolete’. How genuine is this pronouncement indeed!

13.12 :如有王者,必世而后仁.

本章言圣王主政,三十年后,仁道化行天下.

老师说:如果有圣王主政,也必须三十年,而后仁道可以大行天下了.

:圣王; :三十年为一世;

Confucius said: If a genuine emperor were come to power,still would take him thirty years for virtue to prevail.

13.13:苟正其身矣,于从政乎何有? 不能正其身,如正人何?

本章言欲为政须先正其身.

老师说:如果先使己身端正,这于从事国政有何难呢?不能端正己身,怎样能去纠正别人?

正其身:己身正直.

Confucius said:Should a ruler assure himself to be moral rectitude,what difficulty would he encounter in his government? If he is not rectitudinous himself, how would he rectify others?

13.14 冉子退朝,:何晏也?…对曰:有政;…:其事也?如有政,虽不吾以, 吾其与闻之.

本章明国政与家事,当有所分办.

冉有季氏的私朝中退出,老师说:怎么这样的晚呢? …冉有:有国政讨论; …老师说:那是季氏的家事吧? 如果有国政,虽然我现在不见用,我曾做过大夫,当与.

:晚也; 有政:有国家的事; :大夫之家事; :用也.

冉有: 522-489鲁人,字子有,亦称冉有又称有子,孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)有才艺,性谦退,季氏之宰. 参阅11.15

Ran You returned home after work.Confucius asked:Why so late?

Ran You replied:Public affair meeting.

Confucius said:I am pretty sure its Ji family private affairs.Should it be public affair, though I am not used in the government,I am informed with public matters.

13.15 定公:一言而可以兴邦,有诸?孔子对曰:言不可以若是其几也,人之言曰[为君难,为臣不易]如知为君之难也,不几乎一言而兴邦乎? …:一言而丧邦,有诸?孔子对曰:言不可以若是其几也,人之言曰[子无乐乎为君,唯其言而莫予违也] 如其善而莫之违也,不亦善乎?如不善而莫之违也,不几乎一言而丧邦乎?

本章言为君难,一言可以兴邦丧邦.

鲁定公:一句话可以兴国,有这事么? …孔子答:话不可以期望着必定这样的.有人说:“做国君难,做臣子也不容易”,如果知道国君不容易做,不是几乎说不可能一句话就可以兴邦么? …定公:一句话可以失去国家,这事么? …孔子答道: 话不可以期望着必定这样的.有人说:“做国君没有什么可快乐的,唯一可快乐的,只是说话没人敢违抗罢了.”,如果国君说的是善的,没有人敢违抗,这不是很好么? 如果国君说的是不善的,没人敢违抗而照令执行,这不是几乎一句话可以失去国家么?

:; 几乎:相近; 定公:鲁定公

Duke Ding of Lu asked:‘A single suggestion can make prosperous for a state’,Is this saying possible?

Confucius responded:Probably not.As people says:‘Its difficult to be a ruler. Its not easy to be a minister.’so call difficulty for a ruler is it not merely because of the impossibility of making a suggestion that can prosper his state?

Duke Ding asked: ‘A single suggestion can ruin a state’,Is this saying possible?

Confucius answered: Probably not.As people says:There is not much pleasure in a ruler. The only one thing makes him happy is that his suggestion must be obeyed.It the suggestion is a good one, ministers obey and have good results. If the suggestion is a bad one, ministers still need to obeyit,thus, would it therefore ruin the state with one single suggestion? (this is whyminister is not easy)

13.16 叶公.:近者说,远者来.

本章言为政在爱民.

叶公问为政之道,老师说:治区内(近者)的人民都欢悦,远方的人都闻风而来.

:悦也;

叶公:诸梁,子高.国大夫.食邑于.僭称[](越规自号).

Duke She asked about running his country.

Confucius said:Gladden those around you,thus attract people afar to come.

13.17 子夏莒父, .子曰:无欲速,无见小利.欲速则不达.见小利则大事不成.

本章言为政当依次以进,不宜重小利.

子夏当了莒父,问为政之道.老师说:不要求速成,不要只图小利,求速成就不能使政教彻底完成.只看小利益就不能完成大事.

莒父:鲁国邑名; 欲速:事之急切无序;

子夏:,507-,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子夏继孔子之后,系统性传授儒家经典的第一人.被后世誉为传经鼻祖.他晚年是战国时期开始,魏国西河一带教学,开创的{西河学派}培育出大批经国治世良材,并成为孔儒支流法家成长的摇篮.

Zixia being the governor of Jufu asked about running his government.

Confucius said:No Haste, no aims for petties;desire for quickness is the cause for not reaching the goal. Care for the minors will lose the majors.

13.18 叶公孔子:吾党有直躬者,其父攘羊,而子证之; 孔子:吾党之直者异于是.为子隐,子为.直在其中矣.

本章言儒家尊亲为大.

叶公告诉孔子:我乡里间有个躬守直道的人,他的父亲顺手牵了别人的羊,他儿子出来证明; …孔子:我乡里间躬行直道的人和他不一样.父亲为儿子隐藏过失,儿子为父亲隐藏过失.道就在这里面了.

直躬者:行直道之人; 攘羊:顺手牵羊,偷也; :隐恶扬善之义,亦谓人道之直,何况亲情.

叶公:诸梁,字子高.楚国大夫.食邑于叶.僭称[](越规自号).

The Duke of She told Confucius:We have merited a young man because of his honesty,his father stole a goat,he born witness against him.

Confucius said:In my hometown,the concept of merit is different from yours. The son would screen for his father, The father would screen for his son.Such is the merit within fathers and sons.

13.19 樊迟问仁.:居处恭,执事敬,与人忠.虽之夷狄,不可弃也.

本章明仁者之行.

樊迟问为仁之道.老师说:个人的日常生活起居,随时都应该很恭敬的,做事要认真谨慎.待人要尽己之心力诚恳,能这样虽到蛮夷之地,也不可掉弃的原则啊!

居处:日常之起居也; 执事:行事也; 之往也; 夷狄:未开化之异族邦国;

樊迟:515-?樊须,字子迟,故亦作樊迟.鲁人,孔子弟子,仕于季氏.

Fan Chi asked about how to achieve perfect virtue.

Confucius said:Be humble,respect your work,faithful to the public.Even in the area of primitive states,such rules must not be forsaken. 

13.20子贡问曰:何如斯可谓之士矣? 子曰:行己有耻,使于四方,不辱君命,可谓士矣; :敢问其次; :宗族称孝焉,乡党称弟焉; :敢问其次; :言必信,行必果,硁硁然小人哉!抑亦可以次矣; :今之从政何如? :!斗筲之人,何足算也!

本章明士之行.

子贡:怎样才算是个士呢? 老师说:自己行为要能知耻,出使四方,能不沾辱君令,便可算得上是士了: …子贡:敢问次一等的是怎样? …老师说: 人贊其孝,乡亲视为兄弟.:次一等的是怎? …:说话信实,做事果断,坚确地自守,像个小人的样子.但也可算是次一等的了; 子贡:现在从政的怎样? 老师说:!这些才量短浅的人,何足算数啊!

行己有耻:己之行事,能知耻而有所不; 不辱君命:为臣出事,不使君命受到沾辱; 行必果:所做必果决勇为; 硁硁然: keng硁粤读哼,拟声词(敲打石头的声音),形容浅薄固执; 斗筲之人:斗容十升,筲容三升,器量小之谓也,比喻才短量浅之人;

子贡:端木赐卫国人.(贡本作赣),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子贡有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于.

Ziggong asked:What must a person possess to qualify as a perfect scholar?

Confucius said:Able to know what is shameful and what not to do all the time;when send on a mission to four corners,does not disgrace his foreign affairs,this may call as a perfect scholar.

Ziggong said:May I ask what would be the second best?

Confucius said:A man whom his clansmen praised for his filial piety,his villagers respect him as brother.

Ziggong again asked:May I ask who would rank next to that?

Confucius said: He who is trustworthy for his words,and obstinate to carry out what he determines to do, a stubborn small man maybe,yet perhaps would come next.

Ziggong asked:How about those who engaged in government today?

Confucius said:Pooh! These narrow-minded small men ,not worth being taken into account.

13.21:不得中行而与之,必也狂狷乎!狂者进取,狷者有所不为也.

本章孔子叹不得中行之人以传其道,致有狂狷之士.

老师说:我得不到中道之人教之.以传其道,那只有狂狷之人了.狂者志大而有积极的进取心,狷者能守义消极的有所不为.

中行:中庸也.无太过不及行得其中者,不过激,不太保守; :传与其道也; :能进取善道而志大者; :juan/獧粤读绢,能守义而有所节制~狷介;

Confucius said:Since I can not find student pursuing middle path to teach with, I must settle for the extremes,the ardent and the meticulous.The ardent disciples advance too fast and beyond, the meticulous ones are pretty much stationary.

13.22 :南人有言曰人而无恒,不可以作巫医.”善夫! “恒其德,或承之羞.:不占而已矣!

本章言人不可以无恒心.

老师说:南方人有句话人如果没有恒心,不可以做巫医一类的事”,这真是说得好!(易经[])人如果没有常德,羞辱的事就跟着来了”;…老师说:无恒之人,占之不准,只有不为他占卜罢了.

巫医:巫可以与鬼神交通者.医治疾病者; 恒其德,或承之羞,(贞吝):易经第三十二卦{恒卦}之九三爻辞.人无常德,将承受羞辱,天地不容也; 不占:指无恒德之人,不可成德成业,占之无准,不为之占也.

Confucius said: The people in the South have a saying.‘a man has no constancy of faith,cannot even make himself a witch-doctor’Well said indeed! …(Confucius quote the 32nd  Divinatory symbol of the I-ching viz .Constancy)‘Inconstant with his virtue,might incur  disgrace  for himself’

Confucius said:Such kind of a person, even the oracle is useless for him

13.23 :君子和而不同,小人同而不和.

本章以和与同,以别君子与小人.

老师说:君子与人和洽相安但不同流合乌,小人虽与同流合乌,其中亦不会和洽相安.(俗语鬼打鬼也)

:和洽相安; :同流合乌

Confucius said:Righteous people are conciliatory but do not gang-up. Mean people gang-up but are not conciliatory.

13.24子贡问曰:乡人皆好之,何如? 子曰:未可也! …:乡人皆恶之何如? …子曰:未可也!不如乡人之善者好之,其不善者恶之.

本章言好恶不随于人,必依于善与不善.

子贡:一乡之人都喜欢他,这人怎样? …老师说:不可以说就是好人呢! …子贡:一乡之人都讨厌他,这人怎样? …老师说: 不可以说就是坏人呢! 不如乡人中的善人喜欢他,坏人讨厌他.(这才是真正的好人)

:喜欢; :讨厌;

参阅17.13

子贡:端木赐卫国人.(贡本作赣),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子贡有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于.

Ziggong asked:what do you say of a person who is fond of by all  of his fellow-villagers?

Confucius said:Probably not the best character.

Ziggong asked:How about all his fellow-villagers are sick of him?

Confucius said:He is not much worse either.An ideal character is those who are fond of by the goodie and hate by all the baddies.

13.25 :君子易事而难说也,说之不以道,不说也;及其使人也,器之.小人难事而易说,说之虽不以道,说也;及其使人也,求备焉.

本章言事君子与小人之不同.

老师说:在君子手下办事容易,但难以讨他喜欢,如讨他喜欢不以正道,他还是不喜欢的.君子会量才录用.小人下办事是很困难的,小人使用人,苛刻地求全责备.(小人要人做的,不量材而用,无论善与不善,都要替他做妥),讨他喜欢却很容易,只要不择手段地办妥事情.

易事:易于事奉; 器之:量才而用; 难说:难于讨到喜欢; :悦也;

Confucius said:A superior person is easy to serve but hard to please.Whould you have done his favourite ting but not following a righteous way,he will not be pleased.When he choose a man for a special job,he will select the one with suitable skell for that particular operation.A mean person is hard to serve but easy to please. He is pleased that his worker can do his favourite things by hook or by crook.But he expects his worker is able to do everything.

13.26 :君子泰而不骄,小人骄而不泰.

本章以泰与骄来分别君子与小人.

老师说:君子为人安舒而傲慢. 小人为人傲慢而安舒.

:安详舒泰; :傲慢放肆;

Confucius said:A superior person is Serenely aplomb but not arrogant.A parvenu is arrogant but not serenely aplomb.

13.27 :,,,讷近仁.

本章言此四质近乎仁了.

老师说:志强无欲,果敢坚定,朴质无华,言语迟缓.这四种人,都接近仁了.

:无欲,志强不屈; :果断果敢; :质朴无华; :ne讷粤读吶,语迟缓;

Confucius said:Fortitude,reslute,simplicity and slow in speech,are close to perfect virtue.

13.28 子路问曰:何如斯可谓之士矣? 子曰:切切偲偲,怡怡如也,可谓士矣.朋友切切偲偲,兄弟怡怡.

本章言士之行为态度.

子路:怎样做才可算是士呢? …老师说:要能做到切责相处,又能和悦相处,可算是士了.朋友要切责,兄弟之间要和颜悦色.

切偲偲:互相督促,勉励,情意恳挚; 怡怡:和悦之貌.

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Zilu asked: What must a person possess to qualify as a perfect scholar?

Confucius said:A man who is earnest and encouraging, bland and loving can be so-called a superior man.Among his friends, earnest and encouraging; among his brothers, bland and loving.

13.29 :善人教民七年,亦可以即戎矣.

本章言善人为政之效.

老师说:善人为政,教化人民七年,也就可使他们经事于战事了.

教民:教以孝弟忠信,务农讲武之法; 即戎:当兵也.

13.30:以不教民战,是谓弃之.

本章言不教民习于战阵,就如同弃了他们

:用没训练过的人民去作战,是等如抛弃他们.

Confucius said:Let untrained service-men fight a war is simply to abandon them.

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