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颜渊 第十二篇  

2011-08-10 17:24:47|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译颜渊 第十二篇 共二十四章

 

颜渊 第十二篇 共二十四章

 

12.1 颜渊问仁.:克己复礼为仁.一日克己复礼,天下归仁焉.为仁由己,而由人乎哉? …颜渊:请问其目;…:非礼勿视,非礼勿听,非礼勿言,非礼勿动;…颜渊:虽不敏,请事斯语矣!

本章说明为仁之方不离礼.

颜渊问怎样做法才是仁. 老师说:抑制自己的私欲,恢复发露室的礼德,便是仁,果真有一夫能做到这样,那么天下的人都会称赞仰望着你是个仁人了.行仁的工夫在自己,而岂是靠别人的力量可以帮助的呢? …颜渊:请问实践克己复礼的细节; …老师说:不合乎礼教的事情不看,不听,不说,不做; ...颜渊:虽然鲁钝,愿照着这话去做呢!

克己:约束,抑制私欲; 复礼:回复周室礼教; :细节:

颜渊: 521-490颜名回.字子渊,亦谓颜渊.鲁国人.孔子弟子,十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..敏而好学.问一知十,孔子自认不如.回不迁怒,不贰过,贫居陋巷,(音单)食瓢(音嫖),而不改其乐.孔子称其贤.早卒,后世尊为复圣.

Yan Yuan asked about perfect virtue.

Confucius said:restrain oneself to resume proprieties is perfect virtue.

When the day comes that everyone can restrain themselves to resume proprieties, the world will all belong to perfect virtue.The act of perfect virtue is self-initiated,how can it be performed by someone else?

Yan Yuan asked:May I ask its principals?

Confucius said:See no evil,hear no evil,say no evil and do no evil.

Yan Yuan said: Although I am not smart,yet I shall live by these words.

…Confucius defined the process of becoming human as being able to“conquer yourself and return to ritual”

12.2 仲弓问仁.:出门如见大宾,使民如承大祭,己所不欲,勿施于人.在邦恕无怨,在家无怨; …仲弓:虽不敏,请事斯语矣!

本章明仁在敬以持久,以恕待人,则私欲不生而心德全矣.

仲弓问怎样做法才是仁; …老师说:出门如会见贵宾一样,如在上位使用人民要像承奉重大的祭祀一样,自己所不喜欢的,不把它加在别人身上.这样仕于诸侯的邦国使不会招来怨恨,如作陪臣于卿大夫的家,也没有人会怨恨; …仲弓说:雍虽然不够勤快努力,愿照着这话去做呢!

大宾:公侯之宾; 大祭:郊禘之祭;

仲弓:,仲弓,孔子细二十九岁,国人.冉雍出身贫贱,他的父亲行为不良,有人以此作为攻击冉雍的借口.孔子弟子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).参阅6.4

Zhonggong asked about perfect virtue.

Confucius said:When leaving the  door of your house,behave as if you were going to meet a great guest.When dispatching your people for any task, you should seriously consider the task as if preparing a grand sacrifice. what you do not wish to be done unto yourself, do not do unto others. Do not bear resentment either in the stateor in the family.

Zhonggong said:Although Yong(Zhonggong) is not smart, I shall live by these words.

12.3 司马牛问仁,:仁者,其言也讱(ren讱粤读刃); …:其言也讱,斯谓之仁矣乎? …:为之难,言之得无讱乎?

本章说明仁者首在能忍制多言.

司马牛问怎样做法才是仁; …老师说:有仁德之人,他说话能有忍制; …司马牛反问道:说话能有克制,这就是叫做仁人了么? …老师说:,做起来是很难的,说话德能够轻易说吗?

司马牛:,子牛,贵族子弟,孔子学生,性多言而躁; :忍制自己多言如见说话迟钝一般.

Sima-niu asked about perfect virtue.

Confucius said:A person of perfect virtue is cautious and slow in making his speech.

Sima-niu Asked: cautious and slow in speech, is that all what  perfect virtures’ about?

Confucius said:That alone is already hard enough to do! Who can cease talkingwhen such is not happening? (being cautious and withholding)

12.4 司马牛问君子,子曰:君子不忧不惧, …:不忧不惧,斯谓之君子已乎? …:内省不疚,夫何忧何惧?

本章明君子具德,无愧于心,何忧何惧.

司马牛问怎样做法才算是君子; …老师说:君子不会有忧虑,不会有恐惧; …司马牛又问:忧虑不恐惧,这就叫做君子了吗? …老师说:自我反省,无愧于心,那还有甚么可忧虑可恐惧的呢?

内省不疚:自我反省,没有忧愧之事在心内长住如病也.

司马牛:,子牛,贵族子弟,孔子学生,性多言而躁.

Sima-niu asked about a moral rectitude person.

Confucius said:A moral rectitude person has neither worries nor fears.

Sima-niu said: Is that all what a moral rectitude person is? No worries and no fears?

Confucius said:If a person can  introspect and find no wron-doingss, what worry or fear could he/she find in them?

12.5司马牛忧曰:人皆有兄弟,我独亡! …子夏:闻之矣[死生有命,贵在天]君子敬而无失,与人恭而有礼,四海之内,皆兄弟也.君子何患乎无兄弟也?

本章言天下之人皆应敬爱如兄弟也.

司马牛忧虑地说:人人皆有好兄弟,我独没有! …子夏:听说过[生死是命中注定的,富贵是由天安排的]君子只要以敬存心,而没有一时失敬,对人恭敬有礼貌,那么天下之人,都是相亲相爱的兄弟,君子还有甚么忧虑没有兄弟呢?

:即无,(司马牛之兄是桓魋(有称向魋)tui粤读退参阅7.22),又有兄,有弟子颀子车(qi颀粤读旗)皆在作乱谋反,司马牛多次苦劝不听故忧其都为乱而死.

司马牛:司马,子牛,贵族子弟,孔子学生,性多言而躁.

子夏: 507-?姓,卫国温人,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子夏继孔子之后,系统性传授儒家经典的第一人.被后世誉为传经鼻祖.他晚年是战国时期开始,魏国西河一带教学,开创的{西河学派}培育出大批经国治世良材,并成为孔儒支流法家成长的摇篮.

Sima-niu said worrisomely:All men have brothers,I alone have none.

Zixia said:Shang(Zixia)learnt that,death and life are foreordained.Rich and noble are predestined. Should a person forgets not in their heart to respect others and keep out of mischief, all the time,be humble and polite,thence,within the four-seas,brotherhoods but all! With such kind of a person, how can he worry having no brothers?

12.6 子张问明,:浸润之谮(zen粤读义同),肤受之愬(su愬粤读素,义同诉),不行焉.可谓明也已矣!浸润之谮,肤受之愬,不行焉,可谓远也已矣!

本章论人之明远之道.

子张:怎样才算能明察是非呢? …老师说:如水样逐渐漫漫浸透不实的诬言,又像肌肤上切身之痛一般的不实告诉,(这些)对你都行不通,这就是明了. 如水样逐渐漫漫浸透不实的诬言,又像肌肤上切身之痛一般的不实告诉,在你的面前行不通,这就能不囿(you囿粤读右义局限于)于目前有远见的了.

浸润之谮:不实之言是为谮,谮言如水浸,逐渐浸透之也; 肤受之愬:愬同诉,不实之告诉犹如切肤之损,易于信以为眞; :是非之明察也: :能深远地洞烛是非也.

子张:颛孙,孔子弟子,孔子48,国人,后世有子张之儒.参阅11.14

Zizhang asked about the significance of wisdom.

Confucius said:In the midst of permeation of instigators’ incendiaries,although afflicted you personally yet,you can still behave dispassionately accordingly to your own judgenebt,may call this is wisdom.

Again,in the midst of permeation of instigators’ incendiaries,afflicted you personally and yet,you can still behave dispassionately accordingly to your own judgenebt,this may call far-sighted.

12.7 子贡问政,子曰:足食,足兵,民信之矣; …子贡:不得已而去,于斯三者何先?…:去兵;…子贡:必不得已而去,于斯二者何先?…:去食,自古皆有死,民无信不立.

本章言为政当贵信也.

子贡问为政之道,老师说:有充足的民食,有充足的武备,人民自然就信赖于政府了;…子贡:倘在不得已情形下必须去掉一,应该去掉那一项先? …老师说:去掉兵备; …子贡又问: 在不得已情形下还要再去掉一,该去掉那一项呢? …老师说:去掉储备粮食,自古以来,人都要死,政府若失信于民则甚么都不能建立了.

足食,足兵:仓廪充实,武备修整; 民无信不立:治国不可失去人民的信赖;

子贡:端木,国人.(贡本作赣).孔子弟子,孔子31岁利口巧辩,善外交孔门十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于齐.

Zigong asked about Politic strategy.

Confucius said:Sufficient food, sufficient arm-force,sufficient trust by the people to their ruler.

Zigong asked:If a must to give up one,which of the three should go first?

Confucius said:Let arm-force fo first!

Zigong asked:If a must to forsake one of the remaining two,which one should go?

Confucius said:Let go with the food! A hitherto fact of death is unavoidable.A state can not be sustained without the trust by its people.

12.8 棘子成(ji粤读):君子质而已矣,何以文为? …子贡:惜乎!夫子之说君子也,驷不及舌,文犹质也,质犹文也.虎豹之鞟,犹犬羊之鞟.

本章说明文和质两者如偏废,即非君子.

棘子成:君子只要有善良的本质罢了,何必定要有诗书礼乐的文采呢? …子贡:可惜啊! 夫子这样解释君子! 话从舌头上说出来了,驷马的快车也追赶不回来.君子的文和质是一体的.文如同质,质如同文.缼一不可.这好比虎豹的皮去掉了采毛,又何异于犬羊去掉了本无采毛的皮呢?

棘子成:ji粤读,大夫; 夫子:棘子成,当时称大夫皆曰夫子; 驷不及舌:谓人之言一出舌,驷马不能追矣; 虎豹之鞟犹犬羊之鞟(kuo粤读,去了毛的兽皮):虎豹之皮去掉文采无异于没有文采的羊犬之皮了;

子贡: 卫国人.(贡本作赣),姓端木名赐.孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于齐.

Ji Zicheng said:A good person requires merely a good nature. Why must he need to be furnished with ornmental literacy? What accomplishment will that do for him?

Zigong said: Alas! How can master(Ji Zicheng)speak like that of a good person.Our master said,a speed of of four  horses in total is not as fast as a slip of tongue (a word spoken cannot be overtaken ).Literacy is temperament and vice versa.Without its fur,the skin of  a tiger or a leopard is like that of a dog or goat.

12.9哀公问于有若:年饥,用不足,如之何? …有若对曰:盍彻乎? …:二吾犹不足,如之何其彻也? …对曰:百姓足,君孰与不足? 百姓不足, 君孰与足?

本章申言民富则国富之道.

鲁哀公有若:年成歉收,国库支用不够,怎样办呢? …有若:何不征收十分之一的税收呢? …哀公:征十分之二的税,我还感到不够用,怎么能只收十分之一呢? …有若:百姓富足了,君怎么会不富足? 百姓不富足, 君怎么会富足?

:何不; :田赋征收所得十分之一的税(代之税制见孟子滕文公上); :加倍,取十分之二也; :怎么,(此乃疑问副词)

鲁哀公: ?-468,为春秋诸侯国国君主之一,国第二十六任君主.他为鲁定公儿子,承袭鲁定公担任国君主,公元前494-468年在位共27.

有若:,505518-?,孔子晚年弟子,鲁国人.子有,后被尊称为有子.他勤奋好学,能较全面深刻地理解孔子的学说犹其言行仁当以孝悌为本.参阅1.2

Duke Ai asked You Rou:A year dearth of food,expenditures running out,what should be done?

You rou replied: Why not levy 10% tax on people?

Duke Ai sadi:With 20% ,still I find insufficient,how can it be so?

You Rou said:When the state  suffice its people, will the prince be alone live insufficient? If the people are all live insufficient, can the prince be alone live in plentiful.

12.10 子张问崇德辨惑. 子曰:主忠信, 徙议;崇德也.爱之欲其生,恶之欲其死,旣欲其生,又欲其死,是惑也.{诚不以富,亦祇以异}

本章释崇德辨惑之义.

子张:怎样才是崇德辨惑; …老师说:存心主于忠信,使自己行为变善,这就是崇德,你喜爱的人就要他长生,你厌恶的人就要他早死,旣要他生,又要他死,这就是惑了.(此意对人只依自己心之爱惠,不以是非分别也),{最后两句见下文}

崇德:行道有得于心为德,即崇高的品德也; 辨惑:心有所昏昧不明,辨别疑惑使事理分明也; 主忠信:内心以忠信为主; 徙义:迁己欲以从善也; 诚不以富,亦祇以异:此二句乃诗经小雅我行其野之末二句,此诗叙一远嫁而被遗弃的女子对她丈夫喜新厌旧的愤怒.然此两句的意思是:诚不因为她富足,因你厌旧变了心与本章毫无相关之意义,故有人认为是别章的文句而误置于此章也.

子张:颛孙,孔子弟子. 孔子48,国人.后世传有{子张之儒}.

Zizhang asked how to advocate virtue and clarify delusion.

Confucius said:Persist on faithfulness and honesty as primary principals,follow righteousness,your virtue will therefore excel.You like a person and wish him/her to live.You hate a person and wish him/her to die.To wish someone both to live and to dieis a case of delusion.

Quote from poetry

‘Integrity can not be replaced by wealth.Your hatred is due to you have changed’

Unquote…(some scholars suggested that these last 2 phrases were irrelevant as they were wrongly included in this chapter)

12.11齐景公问政于孔子.孔子对曰:君君,臣臣,父父,子子; …公曰:善哉!信如君不君,臣不臣,父不父,子不子,虽有粟,吾得而食诸?

本章论为政当人伦为本.

齐景公孔子为政的道理.孔子:君应尽为君之道,臣应尽为臣之道,父应尽为父之道,子应尽为子之道; …景公:好极了!眞的如君不尽君道, 臣不尽臣道,父不尽父道,子不尽子道,虽有积蓄的米粮,我能得安然地吃它吗?

齐景公:杵臼.鲁昭公末年,孔子针对齐国当时政治上的混乱情况而言; :官禄; :之乎;

Duke Jing of Qi asked Confucius how to run a state properly.

Confucius said:Let ruler acts like a ruler; ministers act like ministers,fathers act like fathers and sons act like sons.

 The Duke sighed: Goodness gracious! How true indeed if the ruler is not like a ruler, ministers not ministers, fathers not fathers and sons not sons,although meals are there, do I have appetite to eat it in peace?

12.12 :言可以折狱者,也与?…子路无宿诺.

本章言子路断是非,实践诺言毫不优柔寡.

老师说:凭着片面之辞便能判案的,只有子路了吧? 子路答应了人的事,没有久留着不践诺言的.

片片言:片面之辞; 折狱:断狱; 宿诺:急于践言,有诺不宿/留待明日之谓也;

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Confucius said:It is Zhong You alone who can bring in a verdict by listening only partially on a lawsuit. He does not have overnight promises leave unfulfilled.

12.13 :听讼,吾犹人也,必也使无讼乎!

本章述孔子以德教化在前,使民无讼为贵.

老师说:审判诉讼案件,我和别人一样(辨出是非),必也要使人民知礼明理,双方不存讼意.

听讼:审判诉讼案件; 吾犹人也:我和别人相同;

Confucius said:About litigation,my principle is like everybody else,to eliminate disputes from the start(by education).

Connotation:Prevention is better than cure

12.14 子张问政.子曰:居之无倦,行之以忠.

本章孔子为政的态度.

子张问为政之道.老师说:守在职位上不懈怠,始终如一处理公务,尽忠职守.

居之:守在职位上; 无倦:不怠慢,始终如一;

子张:颛孙,孔子弟子.孔子48.陈国人,孔子曾说过师也过(11.14),师也辟(11.16);后世有子张之儒派.

Zizhang asked how to act a good politician.

Confucius said:be persistent on your position and not to be supine. Be consistently loyal.

12.15 :博学于文,约之以礼,亦可以弗畔矣乎?

本章已见雍也篇6.25

Confucius said:An erudite person who can restrain in accordance with rite,would not trespass.

12.16:君子成人之美,不成人之恶.小人反是.

本章分别君子与小人存心之不同.

老师说:君子成全别人的好事,不帮助别人作坏事.小人则和这相反.

成人之美:成全人的好事;

Confucius said:A person of noble character offers help to accomplish a good deed but would never act as an evil deed accomplice.A villain would do the contrary.  

12.17季康子问政于孔子.孔子对曰:政者,正也.子帅以正,孰敢不正?

本章言为政当以正道.

季康子孔子怎样为政.孔子:政的意义,就是正道.您以正道领导臣民,谁敢不以正道做事呢?

政者正也:正犹言正道,政治乃众人之事,必以正道; :领导者;

季康子: 复姓季孙.谥曰.?-468国大夫正卿事鲁哀公,此时国公室衰弱.季孙族系之名乃公子季友之后.亦称为季氏.季康子位高权重,是当时国的权臣. {历史背景}季康子季孙肥,春秋时期国的正卿.姬姓,季氏,.谥康.史称季康子.季孙肥[]字则为尊称,所以说季孙并不是氏称,季孙某仅限于对宗主的称谓而已,宗族一般成员只能称季某.季孙肥季氏,而非季孙氏.季平子季桓子,季桓子季康子.季氏为首的三桓强盛,季氏宗主季康子位高权重,是当时国的权臣.再叙历史上此时孔子门生的政迹:鲁定公十五年,公薨,哀公蒋.当时,季桓子为首的{三桓}甚为强盛.哀公二年,季桓子,子肥,是为季康子.当时的,,国两个大国的夹缝里生存,处境不是很好.{三桓}之间的关系也不是很融洽,季康子的专权,让其它二桓:叔孙氏,孟氏很不满.哀公七年(486),(夫差)无礼,强逼国贡献百牢(一百条牢[肉牛];礼制定各诸侯贡礼不能超过十二牢),国被迫贡献,继而国太宰(pi,本字解形大也)季康子来朝见他,虽然国不如国强,康子还是拒绝了,似乎很有气节,实则他觉得国虽大却难成气候,最终仍是无法称霸的,故无惧于他.哀公十一年(482),国入侵,叔孙,孟氏季氏专权,不肯听从季康子的号令将人拦在国土之外.季康子任用孔子的弟子冉有,击退了,接着会同国在艾陵大败,史称艾陵之战.然而此战之后,季康子却加紧战备,以防国再来.哀公十一年,季康子使公华,公宾,公林以币(古代赠送宾客或用于祭祀的束帛.币帛)来迎接孔子回国.至此,{三桓}逐出国的孔子终于得以回,并完成他晚年修书的事业.可以说,季康子间接地成全了孔夫子作为圣人的大业.哀公十二年,季康子[田赋],改革税赋,进一步加速礼崩乐坏的过程,这当然是孔子不愿意看到的.哀公十六年(479),孔子.鲁定公时期,孔子是与三桓斗争的重要权臣,但是结果还是被强大的三桓打败,哀公二十七年,469,季康子.当年(469),季康子,叔孙文子,孟武伯跟随哀公后庸(越王勾践)平阳开会,季康子会中讨论问题谈到子贡.季康子:假如现在子贡在这里,我们根本不会与蛮夷(越国)订这种盟约.孟武伯:的确不错,那为什么不叫子贡? 季康子:我马上就叫子贡;孙叔文子:即使是到了以后,也不要忘记今天的说话(故此左氏春秋亦有记载此事也); …同年夏天四月己亥日,季康子.鲁哀公虽然亲自吊唁,然所行的却是低一级不完备的礼节.

Ji Kangzi asked Confucius about politic.

Confucius said:Politic is Proper deed.If you give a proper upright leadership,who would dare to walk crooked and improperly?

12.18 季康子患盗.问于孔子.孔子对曰:苟子之不欲虽赏之不窃.

本章孔子述上者不贪,可遏止盗风.

季康子忧虑国内盗贼多,问于孔子应该怎么办,孔子:如果您自己不贪欲,就算奖赏人民去行窃,人亦知耻不为的.

: 如果; 不欲:无贪欲之心;

季康子: 复姓季孙.谥曰.?-468国大夫正卿事鲁哀公,此时国公室衰弱.季孙族系之名乃公子季友之后.亦称为季氏.季康子位高权重,是当时国的权臣. {历史背景}季康子季孙肥,春秋时期国的正卿.姬姓,季氏,.谥康.史称季康子.季孙肥[]字则为尊称,所以说季孙并不是氏称,季孙某仅限于对宗主的称谓而已,宗族一般成员只能称季某.季孙肥季氏,而非季孙氏.季平子季桓子,季桓子季康子.季氏为首的三桓强盛,季氏宗主季康子位高权重,是当时国的权臣.再叙历史上此时孔子门生的政迹:鲁定公十五年,公薨,哀公蒋.当时,季桓子为首的{三桓}甚为强盛.哀公二年,季桓子,子肥,是为季康子.当时的,,国两个大国的夹缝里生存,处境不是很好.{三桓}之间的关系也不是很融洽,季康子的专权,让其它二桓:叔孙氏,孟氏很不满.哀公七年(486),(夫差)无礼,强逼国贡献百牢(一百条牢[肉牛];礼制定各诸侯贡礼不能超过十二牢),国被迫贡献,继而国太宰(pi,本字解形大也)季康子来朝见他,虽然国不如国强,康子还是拒绝了,似乎很有气节,实则他觉得国虽大却难成气候,最终仍是无法称霸的,故无惧于他.哀公十一年(482),国入侵,叔孙,孟氏季氏专权,不肯听从季康子的号令将人拦在国土之外.季康子任用孔子的弟子冉有,击退了,接着会同国在艾陵大败,史称艾陵之战.然而此战之后,季康子却加紧战备,以防国再来.哀公十一年,季康子使公华,公宾,公林以币(古代赠送宾客或用于祭祀的束帛.币帛)来迎接孔子回国.至此,{三桓}逐出国的孔子终于得以回,并完成他晚年修书的事业.可以说,季康子间接地成全了孔夫子作为圣人的大业.哀公十二年,季康子[田赋],改革税赋,进一步加速礼崩乐坏的过程,这当然是孔子不愿意看到的.哀公十六年(479),孔子.鲁定公时期,孔子是与三桓斗争的重要权臣,但是结果还是被强大的三桓打败,哀公二十七年,469,季康子.当年(469),季康子,叔孙文子,孟武伯跟随哀公后庸(越王勾践)平阳开会,季康子会中讨论问题谈到子贡.季康子:假如现在子贡在这里,我们根本不会与蛮夷(越国)订这种盟约.孟武伯:的确不错,那为什么不叫子贡? 季康子:我马上就叫子贡;孙叔文子:即使是到了以后,也不要忘记今天的说话(故此左氏春秋亦有记载此事也); …同年夏天四月己亥日,季康子.鲁哀公虽然亲自吊唁,然所行的却是低一级不完备的礼节.

Ji Kangzi was worrisome of thieves therefore consulted with Confucius.

Confucius responded:If there were no impetus for desirousness,even with an award for stealing,no one would care for it.

12.19 季康子问政于孔子:如杀无道,以就有道,何如? …孔子对曰:子为政,焉用杀?子欲善而民善矣.君子之德风,小人之德草.草上之风,必偃.

本章孔子言为政不在刑杀,在上者以德教,则民化之矣.

季康子孔子为政之道说:如杀掉无道的坏人,以成就有道的善人,可不可以呢?…孔子:您主管政治,何必要用杀人的办法呢?您若行善道,百姓也随着向善了.在上位的德行好比风,庶民好比草,风吹到草上,草必跟随风向而倒.

:成就; :何也; 君子:此章指在位者; 小人:此章指庶民也; :仆也;

季康子:复姓季孙.谥曰.?-468国大夫正卿事鲁哀公,此时国公室衰弱.季孙族系之名乃公子季友之后.亦称为季氏.季康子位高权重,是当时国的权臣. {历史背景}季康子季孙肥,春秋时期国的正卿.姬姓,季氏,.谥康.史称季康子.季孙肥[]字则为尊称,所以说季孙并不是氏称,季孙某仅限于对宗主的称谓而已,宗族一般成员只能称季某.季孙肥季氏,而非季孙氏.季平子季桓子,季桓子季康子.季氏为首的三桓强盛,季氏宗主季康子位高权重,是当时国的权臣.再叙历史上此时孔子门生的政迹:鲁定公十五年,公薨,哀公蒋.当时,季桓子为首的{三桓}甚为强盛.哀公二年,季桓子,子肥,是为季康子.当时的,,国两个大国的夹缝里生存,处境不是很好.{三桓}之间的关系也不是很融洽,季康子的专权,让其它二桓:叔孙氏,孟氏很不满.哀公七年(486),(夫差)无礼,强逼国贡献百牢(一百条牢[肉牛];礼制定各诸侯贡礼不能超过十二牢),国被迫贡献,继而国太宰(pi,本字解形大也)季康子来朝见他,虽然国不如国强,康子还是拒绝了,似乎很有气节,实则他觉得国虽大却难成气候,最终仍是无法称霸的,故无惧于他.哀公十一年(482),国入侵,叔孙,孟氏季氏专权,不肯听从季康子的号令将人拦在国土之外.季康子任用孔子的弟子冉有,击退了,接着会同国在艾陵大败,史称艾陵之战.然而此战之后,季康子却加紧战备,以防国再来.哀公十一年,季康子使公华,公宾,公林以币(古代赠送宾客或用于祭祀的束帛.币帛)来迎接孔子回国.至此,{三桓}逐出国的孔子终于得以回,并完成他晚年修书的事业.可以说,季康子间接地成全了孔夫子作为圣人的大业.哀公十二年,季康子[田赋],改革税赋,进一步加速礼崩乐坏的过程,这当然是孔子不愿意看到的.哀公十六年(479),孔子.鲁定公时期,孔子是与三桓斗争的重要权臣,但是结果还是被强大的三桓打败,哀公二十七年,469,季康子.当年(469),季康子,叔孙文子,孟武伯跟随哀公后庸(越王勾践)平阳开会,季康子会中讨论问题谈到子贡.季康子:假如现在子贡在这里,我们根本不会与蛮夷(越国)订这种盟约.孟武伯:的确不错,那为什么不叫子贡? 季康子:我马上就叫子贡;孙叔文子:即使是到了以后,也不要忘记今天的说话(故此左氏春秋亦有记载此事也); …同年夏天四月己亥日,季康子.鲁哀公虽然亲自吊唁,然所行的却是低一级不完备的礼节.

Ji Kangzi asked Confucius about the way to govern: What do think about killing all the baddies so as to help all the goodie?

Confucius responded: As for Master’s (Ji)government,who needs to use killing at all? Master(Ji)desires to be kind, people will act kind.The conduct of a noble person is like the wind. The conduct of the Hoi Polloi is like the long grass below the wind.Whichever direction the wind blows, the grass will bend to its direction.

12.20 子张:仕何如斯可谓之达矣? …子曰:何哉?尔所谓达者; …子张对曰:在邦必闻,在家必闻; …子曰:是闻也非达也.夫达也者,质直而好义,察言而观色,虑而下人,在邦必达,在家必达.夫闻也者,色取仁而行违,居之不疑,在邦必闻,在家必闻.

本章言士当求表里一致,名实相符.非徒闻名也.

子张:一个士怎样才算得是达到使众人信服呢? …老师反问:你所指的达到众人信服,是以何标准呢? …子张:在诸侯之国必然要闻名誉,在乡人夫之家也要闻名誉; …老师说:那是名誉,不是达众之信服.所谓达者,要内主忠信的质直而外好义行,察人之意,观人之色.谦卑自守,这样他在诸侯之国内,定能行无不得而通达,或在乡大夫之家内,也定能行无不得而通达.所谓闻名的人,只是表面装着求仁的样子,而行则相违背,自以为是,安于虚伪,在国有名誉,在家也有名誉.

:让众人信服; :名誉着闻也; :用心委曲也.下人:言柔顺卑谦也; 色取仁而行违:伪装仁义,实背道而行; 居之不疑:安于虚伪,自以为是;

子张: 颛孙,孔子弟子.孔子48.陈国人,孔子曾说过师也过(11.14),师也辟(11.16);后世有子张之儒.

Zizhang asked:When may a scholar reach eminency?

Confucius asked:What is your standard of eminence”

Zizhang said:His name is popular throughout the state,as well as within his family.

The master said:that is famous, not eminent.An eminent person is frank and righteous.that person would examine people’s words and observe their expressions.that person would be humble,considerate and epathic.Such a person will be eminent in the state, and eminent in the family.A famous person wears a mask of righteousness, belying his/her contrary behaviour. Such people rest in this character without doubts about themselves. they will be famous in the state as well as in their families. 

12.21 樊迟徒游于舞雩(yu粤读儒)之下,:敢问崇德,修慝(修同修,te粤读剔),辨惑;…:善哉问! 先事后得,非崇德与? 攻其恶而无攻人之恶,非修慝与?一朝之忿,忘其身以及其亲,非惑与?

本章言修身之道.

樊迟孔子舞雩(yu粤读儒):敢问老师崇尚品德,袪除邪恶之欲念,辨迷惑的具体办法;…老师说:问得好极了,先尽力做事而不去计较收获,这不是崇尚品德么?攻治自己过失,不攻击别人的过失,这不是祛除自己恶念的好方法么?一旦发怒,忘了自身的安危,忘记了会危害到自己的亲属,这不是迷惑么?

舞雩之下:(yu粤读儒)舞雩地名,今山西.求雨之祭坛设于此,有树木可作游憩; 修慝:(修同修,te粤读剔)治去恶欲匿于心者;

樊迟:515-?,子迟,故亦作樊迟.国人,孔子弟子,仕于季氏.

While touring the Wuyu altar with the master, Fan Chi asked:May I ask how to advocate virtue,to remove hidden wickedness,and clarify delusions?

The master said:Profound questions indeed! Set the priority on the task above its reward,is it not an advocate of virtue? Assail oneself own evil and not the evils of others, will it not remove the hidden wickedness? A flurry of anger thus forget his safety as well as the safety of his family, is it not a case of delusion?

12.22 樊迟问仁.:爱人; …问知; …子曰:知人; …樊迟未达, 子曰:举直错诸枉,能使枉者直; …樊迟退,子夏:乡也,吾见于夫子而问知,子曰: 举直错诸枉,能使枉者直,何谓也? …子夏:富哉言乎!有天下,选于众,皐陶,不仁者远矣.有天下.选于众,伊尹,不仁者远矣.

本章阐明仁与智的意义.

樊迟问怎样才算是仁. 老师说:爱护众人; …又问怎样才算是智; …老师说:能知晓人的好坏便算是智了; …樊迟听了还不明白.老师说:举用正直的人,加在斜曲的人上面,能使斜曲的人也正直了; …樊迟退出了.看见了子夏,:刚才我问老师怎样才算智,老师说: 举用正直的人,加在斜曲的人上面,能使斜曲的人也正直了这是甚么意思? …子夏:这话中涵义多丰富啊! 有了天下,在众人之中选皐陶,那些不仁的人就迁离了.有了天下,在众人之中选用了伊尹,那些不仁的人,也就远离了.

:同智; 未达:未明白; :歪斜; :同向,指以前也; 皐陶:之贤臣(任判官),其倡言智者则知人也; 伊尹:商汤之贤相;

:虞舜:.初居畎亩.有天下于故称虞舜.(虞故城在今山西省,平陆县东北,周武王于此;春秋时期晋侯借道于虞以灭虢,还师又灭虞),[]:古虞帝,姓姚,初居畎亩之中,能曲尽孝道.所居民多随之,唐尧举使摄政,乃除四凶[四凶族:浑敦(驩兜),穷奇(共工),梼杌(),饕餮(三苗).皆被舜所流放],虞舜举八元八恺,(:善也,:和也,义八文职八武职)天下大治,摄政三十年,受禅即帝位.有天之号曰有虞氏.,民称其号曰.史称虞舜.又称重华.后南巡崩于苍梧之野.在帝位十八年,子商均不肖,传位于禹.

有臣五人:,,(xie粤读音薛;契丹(Khitan)有误读音者或属约定俗成也,皐陶,伯益;参阅8.20

皐陶:皋陶(皋俗作皐,)又名咎繇,(咎繇粤读够就),左传文十八年八凯之中有注谓皋陶者即青阳氏之裔,大业之子,封于;皐陶乃助虞舜五贤臣之一.造律立狱.舜典,

:成汤,(xie粤读薛)之后裔,开国之主..又名天乙,初居(安徽,bo粤读博)夏桀无道,伐之.南巢,得天下号国,故又称商汤.在位三十年崩.

伊尹:之贤相,.耕于有莘氏之野.三以币聘之.始往就.,, 遂得天下.伊尹之功为多.尊之为阿衡.,其孙太甲无道,伊尹放之于.三年太甲悔过,复归于.伊尹百岁卒.沃丁葬以天子之礼.孟子称之圣之任者.

樊迟:515-?樊须,字子迟,故亦作樊迟.鲁人,孔子弟子,仕于季氏.

子夏:507-?姓卜名商,,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子夏继孔子之后,系统性传授儒家经典的第一人.被后世誉为传经鼻祖.他晚年是战国时期开始,魏国西河一带教学,开创的{西河学派}培育出大批经国治世良材,并成为孔儒支流法家成长的摇篮.

Fan Chi asked about benevolence.

Confucius said: Love all people!

Fan Chi asked:What is philosophy?

Confucius said:Understand people!

Fan Chi could not get it.The master went on to say: Promote the upright and place them above the crooked ones,the crooked can be made to become upright.

Fan Chi withdrew ,met Zixia and said:I just had an interview with our master,I asked about philosophy. The master said to understand people. He said to promote the upright ,place them above the crooked,the crooked can be made upright, what did he mean by that?

Zixia said:How profound is his saying indeed! When Shun was in possession of the world,he chose Gao Yao from the many,promoted him,and men that were in lack of virtue all gone far away.When Tang was in possession of the world, he chose Yi Yin from the many, promoted him, and men that were in lack of virtue all gone far away.

12.23子贡问友.:忠告而善道之.不可则止.毋自辱焉.

本章论交友之道.

子贡问交友之道.老师说:朋友有过失,要尽己之心直告于他.再善引导他.朋友如不接受则要立即停止,不要自讨没趣.

忠告:友有过,尽己心而告之,使之迁善; 善道:引导向善也;

子贡:端木.国人.(贡本作赣),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子贡有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于.

Zigong asked about friendship.

Confucius said:Faithfully admonish with kind guidance.Should the effort be futile. Cease before getting abusive remarks.

12.24曾子:君子以文会友,以友辅仁.

本章说交友之义.

曾子:君子以诗书礼乐结交朋友,以朋友互相辅助共进于仁德.

:诗书礼乐; 辅仁:切磋琢,辅助共进于仁德也.

曾子:子舆505-436武城,曾点之子.父子皆为孔子弟子.曾子事亲至孝.悟圣道一贯之旨.以其学传子思(孔子孙儿),后世称为宗圣.作曾子十八篇.孔子孙儿孔伋子思,子思之儒孔伋曾子之孝道矣.

Zengzi said:A superior person makes friends with academic ingredient.With friendship,he enhances benevolence.

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