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先进 第十一篇  

2011-08-11 00:36:51|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译先进 第十一篇 共二十五章

 

先进 第十一篇 共二十五章

 

11.1 :先进于礼乐,野人也.后进于礼乐,君子也.如用之,则吾从先进.

本章言礼乐,当遵从前辈.

老师说:先进的一辈所制作的礼乐,重朴质,好比乡野之人, 后进一辈所制作的礼乐,重文节好比君子人(城市人).如用之朝廷宗庙之上,我还是遵从先进的一辈制作的礼乐.

先进:前辈之人; 野人:质胜于文,乡村郊野之人; 后进:后辈之人; 君子:文胜于质,城邑之人.

 

Confucius said:Predecessors’rite and music were found upon human nature primitively simple and na?ve.Posterity developed the rite and music favouring the fond of arts and literacy.If to choose between them, I would prefer Predecessors’.

Connotation:natural truthfulness prevailed fancy phraseology

11.2:从我于陈蔡者,皆不及门也; …德行:颜渊,闵子骞,冉伯牛,仲弓,言语:宰我,子贡.政事:冉有,季路.文学:子游,子夏.

本章孔子述孔门四科十位门徒.分别其所长.

老师说:以前跟随在陈蔡的,此时都不在我门下了; …在德行方面,有颜渊,闵子骞,冉伯牛,仲弓.在言语方面有: 宰我,子贡.在政事方面有:冉有,季路.在文学方面有:子游,子夏.

陈蔡:二国名.孔子曾受困于陈蔡之间,路阻粮绝; 不及门:言此时皆不在门下; 闵子骞:姓闵名损,

子骞.孔子弟子; 言语:外交上的辞令,善于应对; 文学:指诗书礼乐,典章制度;

颜渊: 521-490.子渊,亦谓颜渊.国人.孔子十哲之一.敏而好学.问一知十,孔子自认不如.回不迁怒,不贰过,贫居陋巷,(音单)食瓢(音嫖),而不改其乐.孔子称其贤.早卒,后世尊为复圣.

闵子骞: 姓闵名损,字子骞.孔子弟子.

冉伯牛:,.伯牛,以德行着.孔子十哲之一.孔子,伯牛中都.伯牛病重,老师去慰问,从窗子外握着他的手叹道:这人将要丧失了,这真是命啊! 这样的人为何有这种病!…6.8

仲弓:姓冉名雍,字仲弓,比孔子细二十九岁,鲁国人.冉雍出身贫贱,他的父亲行为不良,有人以此作为攻击冉雍的借口.孔子驳斥说,一头耕牛,也可以生出献祭用的小牛来;父亲不好,儿子不一定也不好.冉雍气量宽宏,沉默厚重,深得孔子的器重,认为冉雍具有人君的容度,可以做地方长官.冉雍参加做过季氏见雍也第六章

冉有:522-489,字子有,亦称冉有又称有子,孔子弟子,有才艺,性谦退,季氏之宰.参阅11.15

季路.国卞人,子路一字季路,孔子弟子.性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.卫大夫孔悝(kui粤读灰),以为邑宰,时出公在位,孔悝母伯姬与竖良夫谋立.太子(kuai粤读拐)(gui粤读贵)廹孔悝与蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公奔.子路入,见蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

宰我:宰名予,字子我,也称宰我,鲁国人.宰予口齿伶俐,能说善辩,被列为孔门四科十哲(言语科)之一.孔子常派遣他出使各国,使于齐”,“使于楚.宰予遇事有自己的主见.

子贡.国人.(贡本作赣),姓端木名赐.孔子弟子,有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于齐.

子游: 511-?姓言名偃,字子游,吴国人..仕鲁为武城宰特习于礼,尤于文学着.

子夏:507-?姓卜名商,卫国温人,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子夏继孔子之后,系统性传授儒家经典的第一人.被后世誉为传经鼻祖.他晚年是战国时期开始,魏国西河一带教学,开创的{西河学派}培育出大批经国治世良材,并成为孔儒支流法家成长的摇篮.

Confucius said:Those who were with me in Chen and Cai, did not appear at my door anymore.

Distinguished for their virtue, there were Yan Yuan,Min Ziqian,Ran Boniu,and Zhong Gong;for ability in speech, there were:Zai Wo,and Zigong;for administrative talents: Ran You and Zilu;for literacy outstandings:Ziyou and Zixia.

11.3 :,非助我者也,于吾言无所不说.

本章述孔子自修的态度.

老师说:回啊, 不是助益于我的人啊,对我所讲述的,没有不心领神会而感到喜悦的.

:助益也; :同悦,闻言即解,心感喜悦.

:521-490颜名回.字子渊,亦谓颜渊.鲁国人.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).敏而好学.问一知十,孔子自认不如.回不迁怒,不贰过,贫居陋巷,(音单)食瓢(音嫖),而不改其乐.孔子称其贤.早卒,后世尊为复圣.

Confucius said: I get no help from Hui,no words I say but happily accepted by him.

11.4:孝哉,闵子骞.人不间于其父母昆弟之言

本章孔子赞美闵子骞之孝行.

老师说:克尽孝道的闵子骞,他的父母兄弟都说他孝,人们听了没有异议.

:非议也; 闵子骞:传说子骞母死父更娶及再生二子.后母冬天薄()待子骞.父悉而将出后母.子骞劝曰:母在一子寒,母去三子单.父母皆感动.后母羞愧,改及一家孝友,相处无间.

闵子骞:,子骞.孔子弟子.

Confucius said:Filial pious indeed,Min Ziqian! People can say nothing of him different from the praises by his parents and stepbrothers.

11.5 南容三复白圭,孔子以其兄之子妻之.

本章述南容修身之道.(参阅5.2)

南容一日三次复诵吟白圭之诗.孔子将他侄女儿嫁给了他.

南容:,子容.孔子弟子.孔子兄之壻.

三复:一日三次复诵; 白圭:诗经大雅抑之篇名,诗意在勉人慎言;

白圭:,古代帝王,贵族举行朝聘,祭祀,丧葬时所用的玉制礼器,扁长条形,上尖下方,{诗经.大雅.}:白圭之玷,尚可磨也. dian玷粤读店:玉上的小斑点.

Nan Rong repeatedly recited frequently the poems of ‘The White Gui’: A flaw in the white scepter stone can be ground away.A flaw in a speech would stay forever.

Confucius married Nan Rong his elder

brother’s daughter. 

11.6季康子:弟子孰为好学?孔子对曰:者好学,不幸短命死矣,今也则亡.

本章述颜回之好学.参阅6.2鲁哀公问.

季康子问道:你的弟子中,谁最好学呢? …孔子:颜回这个人最好学,不幸他命短已死了,现在没有像他这样好学的人了.

季康子: 复姓季孙.谥曰.?-468国大夫正卿事鲁哀公,此时国公室衰弱.季孙族系之名乃公子季友之后.亦称为季氏.季康子位高权重,是当时国的权臣. {历史背景}季康子季孙肥,春秋时期国的正卿.姬姓,季氏,.谥康.史称季康子.季孙肥[]字则为尊称,所以说季孙并不是氏称,季孙某仅限于对宗主的称谓而已,宗族一般成员只能称季某.季孙肥季氏,而非季孙氏.季平子季桓子,季桓子季康子.季氏为首的三桓强盛,季氏宗主季康子位高权重,是当时国的权臣.再叙历史上此时孔子门生的政迹:鲁定公十五年,公薨,哀公蒋.当时,季桓子为首的{三桓}甚为强盛.哀公二年,季桓子,子肥,是为季康子.当时的,,国两个大国的夹缝里生存,处境不是很好.{三桓}之间的关系也不是很融洽,季康子的专权,让其它二桓:叔孙氏,孟氏很不满.哀公七年(486),(夫差)无礼,强逼国贡献百牢(一百条牢[肉牛];礼制定各诸侯贡礼不能超过十二牢),国被迫贡献,继而国太宰(pi,本字解形大也)季康子来朝见他,虽然国不如国强,康子还是拒绝了,似乎很有气节,实则他觉得国虽大却难成气候,最终仍是无法称霸的,故无惧于他.哀公十一年(482),国入侵,叔孙,孟氏季氏专权,不肯听从季康子的号令将人拦在国土之外.季康子任用孔子的弟子冉有,击退了,接着会同国在艾陵大败,史称艾陵之战.然而此战之后,季康子却加紧战备,以防国再来.哀公十一年,季康子使公华,公宾,公林以币(古代赠送宾客或用于祭祀的束帛.币帛)来迎接孔子回国.至此,{三桓}逐出国的孔子终于得以回,并完成他晚年修书的事业.可以说,季康子间接地成全了孔夫子作为圣人的大业.哀公十二年,季康子[田赋],改革税赋,进一步加速礼崩乐坏的过程,这当然是孔子不愿意看到的.哀公十六年(479),孔子.鲁定公时期,孔子是与三桓斗争的重要权臣,但是结果还是被强大的三桓打败,哀公二十七年,469,季康子.当年(469),季康子,叔孙文子,孟武伯跟随哀公后庸(越王勾践)平阳开会,季康子会中讨论问题谈到子贡.季康子:假如现在子贡在这里,我们根本不会与蛮夷(越国)订这种盟约.孟武伯:的确不错,那为什么不叫子贡? 季康子:我马上就叫子贡;孙叔文子:即使是到了以后,也不要忘记今天的说话(故此左氏春秋亦有记载此事也); …同年夏天四月己亥日,季康子.鲁哀公虽然亲自吊唁,然所行的却是低一级不完备的礼节.

颜回:521-490姓颜名回.字子渊,亦称颜渊.孔子弟子.孔子称其贤(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..后世尊为后圣.不迁怒:不将怒气迁移到别人身上; 不贰过:不再犯已犯过的过失错误.

Ji Kangzi asked:Which disciples  of yours loved learning?

Confucius responded:There was Hui,he was fond of learning.Unfortunately he was shortlived and had died already.Now there is not anyone.

11.7 颜渊,颜路之车以为之椁, :才不才,亦各言其子也.鲤也死,有棺而无椁.吾不徒行以?之椁;以吾从大夫之后,不可徒行也.

本章记颜渊丧葬之事.

颜渊死了,他的父亲颜路请求将孔子的车子卖掉,颜渊买一具外棺.老师说:才与不才,说来都是儿子啊,以前我儿子鲤死的时候,也是没有椁的,我不能徒步而卖掉车子替他买椁.我要跟从在大夫之后(做大夫应遵守的礼仪),不可以步行的啊.

颜路:无繇(zhou粤读就),,颜渊之父,少孔子六岁,亦是孔子的弟子;

: guo粤读国,棺外之套棺; :孔子长子,伯鱼,死时五十岁(孔子当年七十岁); 徒行:步行也; 以吾从大夫之后;孔子时为大夫,言从大夫之后不可徒步;

When Yan Yuan died,his father Yanlu requested for the master to use his  carriage to make an enclosure for his son’s coffin.

Confucius said:Whether Using my carriage as a coffin enclosure or not,let us relate this matter with our sons. My son Li also died,his coffin was without an enclosure.I could not walk on foot to furnish a coffin  enclosure.I had to follow the norm of a‘Fucius’.It was not proper for my position to walk on foot.

11.8 颜渊,:! 天丧予,天丧予.

本章述孔子颜渊之死.

老师哭泣:颜渊死了,天要亡我了,

:伤痛之声; 天丧予:天亡我也;

颜渊:孔子最得意的学生.521-490姓颜名回.字子渊,亦称颜渊.孔子弟子.孔子称其贤(孔子十哲之首:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..后世尊为后圣.回不迁怒:不将怒气迁移到别人身上; 不贰过:不再犯已犯过的过失错误.孔子赞他闻一知十,自比不如.

When Yan Yuan died, Confucius said:Alas! Heaven is destroying me! Heaven is destroying me!

11.9 颜渊,子哭之恸.从者曰:子恸矣! …:有恸乎? 非夫人之为恸而谁为?

本章述孔子悲痛颜渊之死

颜渊死了.老师哭得很悲恸,跟从的弟子说:夫子过于悲恸了; …老师说:有过于悲痛吗??这样的人悲痛还?谁悲痛啊!

:哀伤过度; 夫人:犹指此人;

颜渊,亦称子渊.孔子弟子.孔子称其贤(孔子十哲之首:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).后世尊为后圣.回不迁怒:不将怒气迁移到别人身上; 不贰过:不再犯已犯过的过失错误.孔子赞他闻一知十,自比不如.

When Yan Yuan died, Confucius grieved deeply with great agony.Those with him said: Master,, your grief is too excessive.

Confucius said:Have I reaaly been too excessive? Even so, who else can I be too excessively grieve for?

11.10 颜渊,门人欲厚葬之.子曰:不可; …门人厚葬之. 子曰:回也,视予犹父也;予不得视犹子也. 非我也,夫二三子也!

本章记门人欲厚葬颜回,孔子阻之.

颜渊死后,孔子的弟子们想要厚葬他.老师说:不可以; …终于弟子们厚葬了颜渊老师说:!看待我如同父亲一般,我不得看待他如儿子一样,非是我要厚葬他呢,是那些弟子们啊!

厚葬:言丧葬应视家之贫富而定,家贫而厚葬则非礼也; 夫二三子:弟子们;

When Yan Yuan died, the disciples wished to arrange a great funeral.The master said:Do not do so!

However the disciples had arranged a full great burial ceremony.

Confucius said: Hui  treated me as his father,I have failed to treat him as a son.This is not my idea, its your schoolmates’idea.

11.11 季路问事鬼神.:未能事人,焉能事鬼? …:敢问死; …:未知生,焉知死.

本章明生死一理,天人一体,学者不可躐等(越级fail to follow proper order).

子路问怎样去奉事鬼神.老师说:没有知道奉事人的道理去奉事人,怎能知道奉事鬼的道理去奉事鬼呢? …子路又问:人在死后怎样? …老师答:既不知道人在出生以前的事,又怎样知道人在死后的事呢?

问事鬼神:问祭祀鬼神之道; 未能事人,焉能事鬼:人鬼一理,不能奉事人,何能奉事鬼; 问死: 问死后之事; 未知生,焉知死:生死一体,不知生前那里来,怎知死后那里去.

季路:鲁国卞人,子路一字季路,孔子弟子,(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.卫大夫孔悝(kui粤读灰),以为邑宰,时出公在位,孔悝母伯姬与竖良夫谋立.太子(kuai粤读拐)(gui粤读贵)廹孔悝与蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Zilu asked about how to serve the spirits of the dead.

Confucius said:While we are not able to serve the living,how are able to serve their spirits after they die?

Zilu went on to ask:I venture

 to ask about the after death.

Confucius said:We do not know where we come from before life, how do we know where we go to after death?

11.12闵子侍侧,誾誾如也.子路行行如也.冉有,子贡侃侃如也.子乐;…也不得其死然.

本章述孔子弟子等四人修养上成就的气象.

闵子骞侍奉之时,有着一派中正适度的气象.子路有着一派刚强勇敢气象.冉有,子贡二人有一派温和悦乐的气象.老师感到很快乐.但他说:!恐怕他不得善终吧.

誾誾如:(yin誾粤读银)中正适度貌; 行行如:刚强貌; 侃侃如:(kan侃粤读罕)理直而和乐貌; 不得其死然:,未定之辞.此谓子路()刚强,恐不得以寿终也.

:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.卫大夫孔悝(kui粤读灰),以为邑宰,时出公在位,孔悝母伯姬与竖良夫谋立.太子蒯(kuai粤读拐)(gui粤读贵)廹孔悝与蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公奔.子路入,见蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

闵子:,子骞.536-487国人,孔子弟子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性孝友,以德行着.少时被后母虐,其亲生二子以絮造衣;子骞则以卢花;父知之欲出后母,子骞曰:母在一子寒,母去三子单.遂止,母亦感悟.

冉有:522-489,子有,亦称冉有又称有子,孔子弟子,十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)冉有具才艺,性谦退,季氏之宰. 参阅11.15

子贡:国人.(贡本作赣),姓端木名赐.孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).赐有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于齐.

Serving the master by his sides,MinZiqian was earnest and respectful;Zilu was bold and disciplinary;Ran You and Zigongwere genial and pleasant,Confucius was happy.However he made a comment on Zilu:I am afraid that a person like You(Zillu),might not die out of a natural course.

11.13 人为长府.闵子骞:仍旧贯,如之何? 何必改作; …子曰:夫人不言,言必有中.

本章述闵子骞不妄言,言必中肯.

人计划改造藏财货的府库.闵子骞说:还是照旧样子不好吗? 何必改做呢?…老师说:此人不说话,说出来必中肯合理.

长府:为藏财货之所; 仍旧贯:仍照旧制;

闵子骞: 536-487鲁国人,姓闵名损,字子骞.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性孝友,以德行着.少时被后母虐,其亲生二子以絮造衣;子骞则以卢花;父知之欲出后母,子骞曰:母在一子寒,母去三子单.遂止,母亦感悟.

The people of Lu wished to renovate the treasury warehouse. MinZiqian suggested:Restore the same architecture,What do you think of that?

Confucius said:That man seldom speaks.When he does, he’s  always cogent.

11.14 :之瑟,奚为于之门?…门人不敬子路.:也升堂矣!未入于室也.

本章言子路不因其一事之不足,而忽其全部修养

工夫.

老师说:仲由的鼓瑟声,怎能算是出自我的门下呢? …弟子因此不敬重他;…老师说:由啊!他的学养比如已经升堂了,只不过还未达精微比如入室的境地罢了.

之瑟:,乐器名称, 仲由(子路)性刚勇,其鼓瑟之声亦如此,夫子亦戒之; 升堂入室:比喻人之道的深浅; :何也;

Confucius said:Its hard to say that You learn to play the Se(Zither)within the Qiu’s door.Whereupon,the other disciples began not to respect Zilu.

Confucius said:You was already admitted the door and ascended the hall, its only that he has yet to advance into the inner room. 

11.15子贡:也孰贤? …子曰:也过,也不及; …:然则愈与? …:过犹不及.

本章说明子张子夏的质,各有所偏.

子贡:子张子夏,谁较好一点呢? …老师说:子张失之太过,子夏失之不及;…子贡:那么是子张比较好一些吧; …老师说:太过如同不及.(同样不是在中庸之道上)

:颛孙,孔子弟子,孔子48,国人,后世有子张之儒.

:子夏(507-?姓卜名商,卫国温人,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子夏继孔子之后,系统性传授儒家经典的第一人.被后世誉为传经鼻祖.他晚年是战国时期开始,魏国西河一带教学,开创的{西河学派}培育出大批经国治世良材,并成为孔儒支流法家成长的摇篮.); 过犹不及:太过如同不及,皆未入中道; 

子贡:国人.(贡本作赣),姓端木名赐.孔子弟子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说出师敌以存.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于.

Zigong asked: Who is better, Shi or Shang?

Confucius said:Shi has gone beyond the mark, Shang has yet to reach.

Zigong asked:Therefore Shi is better,I supposed?

Confucius said:Going too far is not much better than going not far enough.

11.16 季氏富于周公,也为之聚敛而附益之. 子曰:非吾徒也,小子鸣鼓而攻之,可也!

本章责冉求不应为季氏聚敛而济其富.参阅11.20

季氏已比周天子上室的周公还要富有,而冉求还要为他征敛,使他的富有再增多.老师说:他不是我的徒.弟子们!可以大声公开的讨伐他.

季氏富于周公:言季氏为诸侯之卿,而富于上朝之周公; 聚敛附益:多方聚集征收,增加其财富; 鸣鼓攻之:大声讨伐他;

冉求:522-489鲁人,子有,亦称冉有又称有子,孔子弟子,有才艺,性谦退,季氏之宰.

The head of the Ji clan was richer than the Duke of Zhou, and still,Ran Qiu was assisting to collect taxes greedily for him to increase his wealth.

Confucius said:He is not a pupil of mine.Disciples and all,beat the drum and set off to assail him!

11.17 也愚,也鲁,也辟,也喭.(yan粤读现)

本章孔子评四弟子各有所偏使自勉之.

高柴较愚直,曾参较迟钝,颛孙师较偏激,仲由较粗俗.

:yan粤读现粗野之言论; :志高大流于偏激;
:,子羔,孔子弟子,比孔子细30.卫人,史记载:柴也愚,长不盈五尺.
:曾参孔子46,鲁人,传孝经,孔子之孙子思,孔伋,是曾子弟子.孔伋后立子思儒派.再述曾参(曾子)505-436鲁国武城人,姓曾名参字子舆.曾点之子.孔子弟子.事亲至孝.悟圣道一贯之旨.以其学传子思(孔子孙儿),后世称为宗圣.曾子十八篇.

:颛孙师,子张.孔子48,陈人,后世有子张之儒派.参阅11.14
:子路鲁国卞人,,子路一字季路,孔子弟子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.卫大夫孔悝(kui粤读灰),以为邑宰,时出公在位,孔悝母伯姬与竖良夫谋立.太子蒯(kuai粤读拐)(gui瞶粤
)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Chai is rather a simpleton,Shen is rather a bit slow, Shi is quite extreme and Zhong You is too rash.

11.18 ,其庶乎! 屡空. 不受命,而货殖焉,亿则屡中.

本章孔子子渊,子贡各有所长.

老师说:说及回吧,他已近乎道了.时常守着穷乏.谈及赐吧,不接受公家的俸禄.但自己经营财货,每次猜测物价皆准确.

庶乎:,近也.言近乎道吧; 屡空:时常很穷乏; 不受命:不受禄; 货殖:货财生殖; 亿:猜度;

: 521-490颜名回.字子渊,亦谓颜渊.鲁国人.孔子弟子十哲之首:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).敏而好学.问一知十,孔子自认不如.回不迁怒,不贰过,贫居陋巷,(音单)食瓢(音嫖),而不改其乐.孔子称其贤.早卒,后世尊为复圣.

:端木,国人.(贡本作赣),.孔子弟十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于齐.

Confucius said:Hui has probably attained the perfect virtue.but he was always in lack of heaps.Ci does not accept offers of governmental post,as a merchant managing his own investments, he is always accurate with his predictions.

11.19 子张问善人之道.子曰:不践迹,亦不入于室.

本章孔子论善人的境界.

子张问善人的行为,老师说:善人能不随世俗人的脚印走而自不为恶,但学问也不入于完善的境界().

不践迹:不照着世人的脚印走;

子张:颛孙,孔子弟子.孔子48.陈国人,孔子曾说过师也过(11.14),师也辟(11.16);后世有子张之儒派.
Zizang asked about the way of a benevolent person.Confucius said:A benevolent person does not tread in the footsteps of evil-doers,however,his learning is not among the advanced learners’level.

11.20 :论笃是与,君子者乎?色庄者也?

本章言不可以貌取人.

老师说:一个人的言论很笃实,本应赞许的,那知道真是一位君子呢?还是只有外表庄严而心实不然呢?

论笃:论笃实sincere/honest; :许可也; 色庄:外貌庄然内实不然;

Confucius said:People usually approve of a person whose discourse seems pragmatic and honest.But is he really a person of integrity ,or merely a hypocrite in disguise?

11.21 子路:闻斯行诸? …子曰:有父兄在,如之何其闻斯行之? …冉有:闻斯行诸? …子曰:闻斯行之! …公西华:也问闻斯行诸,子曰有父兄在;求也问闻斯行诸,子曰闻斯行之; 也惑,敢问; …子曰:也退,故进之;由也兼人,故退之.

本章记孔子因材施教.使之无过不及之偏.参阅11.15

子路:听到一种好的道理,就应当去做吗? …老师说:还有父兄在上,怎么可以听到就做呢? …冉有问:听到一种好的道理,就应当去做吗? …老师说: 听到一种好的道理,就应当去做; …公西华说:由问听到一种好的道理,就应当去做吗? 老师答有父兄在上,怎可以; 求问:听到一种好的道理,就应当去做吗? 老师答听到一种好的道理,就应当去做; 赤对此甚不解,想再问个明白; …老师说:求啊!畏缩不前,所以我鼓励他快些进取.由啊!勇为,一人做起来抵两人,所以我抑制他一些.

闻斯行诸:闻义即当勇为之; 退:畏缩不前; 兼人:一人做加倍二人的事;

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

:522-489子有,孔子弟子.有才艺,性谦退,任季氏家宰.

:姓公西名赤,字子华,鲁人.孔子弟子.束带立朝,知宾主之仪.

Zilu asked:When I hear a good deed, Shall I set off to practice it myself promptly?

Confucius said:While your father and elder brother are still present, how can you set off to practice it promptly?!

Ran You asked: When I hear a good deed, Shall I set off to practice it promptly?

Confucius said:When a good deed is heard, one should follow and practice it promptly.

Gongxi Hua said:When You asked‘When I hear a good deed, Shall I set off to practice it myself promptly?

’and master said:Your father and elder brother are present; Qiu also asked whether he should practice a good deed immediately after he had heard of itand the master said he should do it promptly. Chi (Gongxi Hua)is thus confused. May I ask why?

Confucius said:Qiu is bashful ,needed to be egged on.You has the boldness of two.and needed to be held back.

11.22 子畏,颜渊.:吾以女为死矣;…:,何敢死?

本章述孔子关怀弟子安危.参阅9.5

老师在匡被围攻,心有戒心.颜渊失散落在后面, 老师说:我以为你已死了!…颜渊:夫子您还在,,何敢轻易就死呢?

畏于:孔子被围攻而有戒心; :通汝,即你也;

Confucius was trapped in Kuang and Yan Hui had fallen behind.

The master said:I thought you had died.

Hui replied:While the master is still alive,how could Hui dare to die?

11.23 季子然:仲由,冉求,可谓大臣与?…:吾以子为异之问,曾由与

求之问.所谓大臣者,以道事君,不可则止,今由与求也,可谓具臣矣;…:然则从之者与?…:弒父与君,亦不从也.

本章述孔子说明臣事君之道.

季子然:仲由冉求可以称得上是大臣吗? …老师说:我以为你问的是别人,原来问的是由和求呀.称作大臣的人,能够照先王之道来侍奉君王,若不能这样做,宁可辞官.现在由与求两个人,可以算是一般的大臣罢; …季子然又说:那么他们会一切都顺从季氏吗? …老师说:杀父和弑君王的事,他们也不肯顺从的.

季子然:季氏子弟,因得子路,冉求为家臣,故问之; 异之问:问的是别人; :原来是; 具臣:一般的臣而已;

:子路鲁国卞人,子路一字季路,孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.卫大夫孔悝(kui粤读灰),以为邑宰,时出公在位,孔悝母伯姬与竖良夫谋立.太子蒯(kuai粤读拐)(gui粤读贵)廹孔悝与蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公奔.子路入,见蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

: 522-489鲁人,字子有,亦称冉有又称有子,孔子弟子,有才艺,性谦退,季氏之宰.

Ji Ziran asked:Can both Zhong You and Ran Qiu be called Great Ministers?

Confucius said:I thought you would ask someone else. Yet only You and Qiu you are asking.What is so called Great minister,is one who serves his prince according to righteousness.When he finds he cannot do so, he would retire.As for Zhong You and Qiu,they may just be  called as a minister.

Ji Ziran said: In this case, they will always obey their superior?

The master said:In an order of slaying their father or their prince,they will not follow that.

11.24 子路使子羔.:贼夫人之子!…子路:有民人焉,有社稷焉,何必读书,然后为学? …子曰: 是故恶夫佞者!

本章明人应当学成才为仕.

子路要使子羔季氏 费邑,老师说:这是害了人的儿子;…子路:那里有人民,有社稷(治事事神皆是为学),何必一定要读书才算是为学呢? …老师说:这样所以我很厌恶理不足而徒言辞来对付人的人.

:bi费粤读庇,季氏之封邑; 贼夫人之子:/害也,时子羔尚幼,学未成熟,使之为宰,适以害之; :厌恶也; :理不足而徒以口才言辞对付人者.

子羔:子羔,孔子30.卫人,史记载:柴也愚,长不到五尺.

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Zilu send Zigao (an undergraduate) to govern Fei.

Confucius said:You are doing harm to someone’s son.

Zilu said:In Fei,there are people, there are alters for the spirits of land and grains,why reading from books can only be called learning?

The master said: This is why I hate to talk with glib tongue people.

11.25 子路,曾晳,冉有,公西华侍坐.子曰:吾一日长乎尔,毋吾以也;…居则曰:不吾知也,如或知尔,则何以哉? …子路率尔而对曰:千乘之国,摄乎大国之间,加之以师旅,因之以饥馑,由也为之,比及三年,可使有勇,且知方也; …夫子哂之.求尔何如? …对曰:方六,七十,如五,六十,求也为之,比及三年,可使足民.如其礼乐,以俟君子(si读自); …赤尔何如? …对曰:非曰能之,愿学焉,宗庙之事,如会同,端章甫,愿为小相焉; …点尔何如?鼓瑟希,铿尔,舍瑟而作,对曰:异乎三子者之撰; …子曰:何伤乎?亦各言其志也; …:莫春者,春服旣成冠者五,六人.童子六,七人.浴乎沂,风乎舞雩,咏而归; …夫子喟言叹曰:吾与点也! …三子者出,曾智后,曾智曰:夫三子者之言何如? …子曰:亦各言其志也已矣! …:夫子何哂由也? …:为国以礼,其言不让,是故哂之; …唯求则非邦也与? …安见方六,七十如五,六十,而非邦也者? …唯赤则非邦也与? …宗庙会同,非诸侯而何?赤也为之小,孰能为之大?

本章述孔子及其弟子各言其志,以观其器识.

子路,曾晳,冉有,公西华陪孔子坐着,孔子说:我比你们稍为年长,不要因此就不敢发表意见.平日你们闲居时老说没有人知道我呀,假若有人知道你们,那你们要怎么样呢? …子路急忙抢先答:具有一千辆战车的国家(),夹在大国中间,外有别国军队侵犯,内有灾荒,这样的国家让我治理,只要三年,就可以使人民刚勇又明白一些道理; …孔子听了微微一笑.老师又问:冉求你怎么样? …冉求答:一个有六,七十里方边,或者五,六十里方边的国家让我去治理,只要三年时间,可以使人民丰衣足食,至于礼乐教化,便要等待贤君的出现了; …(老师又问)公西华,你怎么样? …公西华答:不敢说我能胜任,只是说我愿意学习学习.宗庙祭祀的事.或者与别国会会盟的事.我愿穿上礼服,戴上礼帽,担任一个小司仪; …(老师又问):曾晳()你怎么样? …曾点听到老师问他,便把鼓瑟的音节慢下来,铿的一声推开瑟站起来答:我的志趣不同三子的陈说; …老师说:那有甚么关系呢?各人也有自己的志向罢了; …曾点说:当暮春的时候,新成的(换季)衣服穿上身,约青年人五六个,小孩六七个,同到沂(yi沂粤读宜)水之边,(guan盥粤读贯)洗手脸,再到求雨的祭坛之上,沈浸在春风里,唱着歌一路回来; …老师喟然叹道:我赞同点啊! …三弟子都走了,曾晳()在后,随问:他们三位所说的志愿怎样? …老师说:不过各说自己的志愿罢了; …曾晳()再问:老师为何笑由(子路)?…老师说:治国要以礼,他说的一点礼让没有,所以我才笑他; …:那么求所说的不像是治理一个国家呢? …:怎见得六,七十里,或五,六十里方边大的地方就不是一个国家呢? …:但赤所说的就不像是一个国家呀? …:宗庙祭祀,诸侯会同,不是国家诸侯之事是甚么?赤愿意只做小相,那谁才算是大相呢?

一日长乎尔:年纪稍长些; 毋吾以也:不要因我较年长而难言之也; :平日; 何以哉:将何以为用也; 率尔:轻率也; :廹也; 师旅:古二千五百人为师,五百人为旅,意军旅之事; 饥馑:饥荒; 比及:等到; :微笑; :或也; 以俟君子: si俟粤读,等待也; 足民:使人民富足;方六,七十:/边也,面积每边六,七十里者也; 宗庙之事:谓祭祀之事; 会同:诸侯相会见也; 端章甫:/玄端,礼服也,章甫/礼冠也; 小相: 相乃赞君礼仪之傧相.小乃谦辞; :希落,指瑟声渐慢下来; 铿尔:铿然投瑟之声; 舍瑟而作:舍了瑟而起立; :具也,所具之志; 莫春:暮春也; 春服:单夹之衣; 冠者:古时男子二十而冠,成年人也; :yi粤读宜,水名,发源自山东曲阜县南流入江苏,此水有温泉流入,暮春即可沐浴;  风乎舞雩:风凉于祭天祷雨之处,舞雩地名,今山西.

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

曾晳,名点,曾参(曾子)之父,父子皆为孔子弟子;

冉有:522-489,子有,亦称冉有又称有子,孔子弟子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)有才艺,性谦退,季氏之宰. 参阅11.15

公西华:公西,子华,.孔子弟子.束带立朝,知宾主之仪.

Zilu, Zeng Xi,Ran You and Gongxi Hua were sitting by the master.

Confucius said:I may be a little bit older than you,but do not mind that, as you often complain  ‘we are not known’,well,if some prince were to know you,what would you wish to do?”

Zilu rushed to indiscreetly say:Asatellite  state of a thousand chariots, enclosed by powerful countries,invaded by foreign armies, and thus caused famine at home,You(Zilu )is able to manage it…let me have three years I could make the people bold and know their principles.

Confucius smiled at Zilu and asked Qiu:

‘What would you do Qiu?’

Qiu replied:Should I run a place of sixty or seventy square miles , or one of fifty or sixty, Qiu can also manage it. in three years time I could suffice the people.As to teaching ritual and music,I would wait for the appearance of a superior man to do that.

The master said: What would you do Chi?

Chi answered: I am not saying that I can do this ,therefore  I would like to learn,not of what I can do.at service in the ancestral temple,or at vassals conference ,I would like to be in full dress,, to act as a junior officer.

The master turned to Dian and asked:What would you like to do Dian?

Dian gradually halted playing the music,put aside the Se (zither) rose and replied:my wishes are different,from the other three.

Confucius said:Whats wrong with that? We are only speaking of our thoughts.

Zeng Xi said:In the last days of spring,light jacket is now appropriate for the weather ,along with five or six young men,and six or seveven young lads,we would bathe in the Yi River,enjoy the breeze at Wuyu(the altar Dance to pray for rains),and then return home singing.

The master sighed and said:I am with Dian.

The three other having gone out. Zengxi remainded behind and said:What do you think of what the others had said?

The master said: Each but speak of his mind.

‘Why did you smile at You?(Zilu)’

The master said:the management of a state demands the rules of propriety,yet what he said was not modest.Thats  why I smiled at him.

‘But did not Qiu sjpeak of the matters of a state?’

The master said:Have you ever seena territory of sixty or seventy miles or one with fifty or sixty ,that were not a state?

‘But Chi actually did not speak of matters of a state?’

The master said:Who but princes would there be in the ancestral temjple,or at the grand audience of vassals? Is this not a matter of state affair? If Chi were to regard this as a junior officer  in these services,what affair would have to be important enough for a senior one?

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