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泰伯 第八篇  

2011-08-11 12:56:15|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译泰伯 第八篇 共二十

 

泰伯 第八篇 共二十

 

8.1 :泰伯,其可谓至德也已矣! 三以天下让,民无得而称焉.

本章述泰伯之德.

老师说:泰伯可称得上是至德之人了! 再三把天下让给弟弟,(隐匿自己的功德,逃离了周)使人民们不知道他实在的事实来称道他.

泰伯:周太王之长子.次弟仲雍.少弟季历.季历,又生圣子文王昌,泰伯以国位让.仲雍逃走,于是太王季历.

Confucius said:Taibo may indeed be called a man of highest virtue.He had thrice abdicated this throne.People were however unable to describe and praise him properly.

…Taibo had concealed all his good deeds and hid reclusively.  

8.2 :恭而无礼则劳,慎而无礼则葸(Xi读徙),勇而无礼则乱,直而无礼则绞.君子笃于亲则民兴于仁.故旧不遗则民不偷.

本章说礼为一切行为之主.

老师说:恭敬而不合乎礼便会使人感到烦扰.谨慎而不合乎礼便会是畏缩恐惧.勇敢而不合乎礼便会犯上作乱.爽直而不合乎礼便会急切责人.在上位的人,能够厚待于他的亲属,那人民见了便会兴起仁爱之风.在上位的人能够不遗弃故交旧友,那人民的风气,也会趋向敦厚而不侥薄了.

:烦扰不安; :(Xi读徙)畏惧(畏葸不前); :犯上; :急切刺人之非;:薄义; 归厚:不侥薄(jiao粤读嚣),薄即冷淡也;

Performing ceremonies with improper rites are futile efforts.meticulousness neglecting the rites lead to timidiy.bold but na?ve of the rite would be unresting for the society, straightforward but careless for the rite would be aggressive therefore self-trussing.If  authorities were sincere and caring for their staff and kinmen,people would incline to be benevolent.If authorities cherished the past, people would then not be apathetically nonchalant.

8.3 曾子有疾,召门弟子曰:启予足!启予手!诗云:战战兢兢,如临深渊,如履薄冰.…而今而后,吾知免夫? 小子!

本章述曾子戒慎工夫,至死不渝,以示门人.

曾子有病沉重了.召集门弟子到床前来,:揪开被子看看我的手,看看我的足,诗经上说:小心谨慎!好比走在下临深渊之上,好比踩在薄薄地河冰之上; …从今以后,我知道能免了,弟子们!

:开而视之; 战战兢兢:诗经小雅旻章,言己时刻戒慎守身,如临渊恐其失坠,如践踏在氷上,恐其落陷,战战:恐惧貌; 兢兢:戒慎貌; 小子:称其门下弟子也.

曾子:子舆505-436武城,曾点之子.父子皆为孔子弟子.事亲至孝.悟圣道一贯之旨.以其学传子思(孔子孙儿),后世称为宗圣.作曾子十八篇.孔子孙儿孔伋之师也,子思之儒.孔伋曾子孝道矣.

Zengzi was sick. He assembled his disciples and said:Look at my feet, look at my hands,The Book of Poetry says‘to be meticulously cautious like trembling with fright and moving fearfully as if approaching the edge of an abyss; or as if treading on thin layer of ice(lake).’. From now on, I know I will be free from all those predicaments,my disciples!

Connotation:If a person is not meticulously cautious all the time,its better for him to lie sick in bed so to avoid trouble.

8.4曾子有疾,孟敬子问之.曾子言曰:鸟之将死,其鸣也哀,人之将死,其言也善.君子所贵乎道者三,动容貌,斯远暴慢矣;正颜色,斯近信矣;出辞气,斯远鄙倍矣;笾豆之事,则有司存.

本章言在上位的人,贵乎在容貌,颜色,言辞上要合礼.

曾子病重,孟敬子来慰问,曾子说:鸟将死时鸣叫的声音就很悲哀,人将要死所说的话也是善良的.在上位的人,所应重视的道理有三种:能常注意表露容貌,自己便可以远离态度上的粗暴,能常注意端正颜色,自己便可渐近诚信.能常注意说话措辞,自己便可以远离鄙俗背理了.至于那些祭典之类的事,自有负责管理的官员们.

暴慢:言态度粗暴放肆; 辞气:语之声调也; 鄙倍: 鄙俗背理(倍同背); 笾豆之事:国家祭典之事情(笾豆:礼器); 有司:政府里管事之人.

孟敬子:大夫,复姓仲孙,公子庆父之后.庆父共仲,故以为仲氏.亦曰仲孙.庆父,讳弑君之罪,更为孟氏.亦曰孟孙氏.

ngzi was sick.Meng Jingzi visited to ask after him.Zengzi said:When a bird is dying soon, its cries are mournful; when a person is dying soon,his/her words are kindhearted. A person of virtue values  3 concepts. A solemn yet pleasant countenance can keep away violence and arrogance;wearing appropriate colours enhances trustworthiness,use formal wordings for speeches can avoid coarseness and iimpropriety. As far as matters for the temple, there are professionals to keep it in order.

8.5 曾子:以能问于不能,以多问于寡,有若无,实若虚,犯而不校,昔者吾友尝从事于斯矣.

本章曾子称赞颜回能虚己得人之美德.

曾子:自己有才能,去请教比他才能低的,自己知道的多,去请教比他知道少的,有好像没有,充实好像很空虚,别人无理来冒犯,不予计较,从前我的朋友(颜回)曾经在这上面下过功夫了.

:计较也; 吾友:指颜回(据汉马融注)

曾子:子舆505-436武城,曾点之子.父子皆为孔子弟子.曾子事亲至孝.悟圣道一贯之旨.以其学传子思(孔子孙儿),后世称为宗圣.曾子十八篇.孔子孙儿孔伋子思,子思之儒孔伋曾子之孝道矣.

颜回:521-490颜名回.字子渊,亦称颜渊.孔子弟子.孔子称其贤(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..后世尊为后圣.回不迁怒:不将怒气迁移到别人身上; 不贰过:

Zengzi said:An intelligent person to ask a less intelligent for advice;massive(knowledge) consulting the lesser;plentiful(wisdom) as if none; erudite as if ignorant;would not bother to seek revenge for insults.

A friend of mine in the past was able to achieve that.(Yan Hui)

8.6 曾子:可以托六尺之孤,可以寄百里之命,临大节而不可夺也,君子人与? 君子人也!

本章曾子论君子之德.

曾子:可以托付辅助幼主,可以交付一个大国的政令,遇到生死存亡的关头,也不会改变操守,这样的人可称得上是君子吗? 真可称得上是君子了.

托六尺之孤:十五岁大小之幼主,言受托于前君之命,辅助幼主; 寄百里之命: 百里者大国也,令者国政也; 大节:国家存亡关头之个人生死的气节; :动摇/改变;

曾子:505-436鲁国武城人,名参字子舆.曾点之子.孔子弟子.事亲至孝.悟圣道一贯之旨.以其学传子思(孔子孙儿),后世称为宗圣.作曾子十八篇.

Zengzi said:A person who is reliable to trust with an orphan crown prince(ensuring his succession of the throne),and is reliable to continue the policy of a state big as hundred miles,as facing the moment crisis of life and death could not deprive him of his determination,is such a person of virtue? A person of virtue indeed!

8.7曾子:士不可以不弘毅,任重而道远,仁以为己任,不亦重乎?死而后已,不亦远乎?

本章明士当弘毅,任重道远.

曾子:一个读书修身的人,不可以不弘大坚毅,因责任重,实践的时期远,把仁道推行,引为自己的责任,不是很重么?这种工作实践起来,一直到死才是停止,这不是很遥远么?

弘毅:弘大坚毅;

曾子:505-436鲁国武城人,名参字子舆.曾点之子.孔子弟子.事亲至孝.悟圣道一贯之旨.以其学传子思(孔子孙儿),后世称为宗圣.作曾子十八篇.

Zengzi said:A chief public officer must not be without fortitude.As the duty is imperative and the road to achieve it is lengthy.The onus for him/her is to be benevolent in every respect and life time., is that workload not heavy? Until death will the road come to an end, is that distance not lengthy?

…In the words of Confu …In the words of Confucius’disciple Tseng-tzu the true nobleman君子must be broad-minded and resolute,for his burden is heavy and his road is long. He takes humanity as his burden.Is that not heavy ? Only when death does his road come to an end. Is that not long?

8.8:兴于诗,立于礼,成于乐.

本章述人立身成德之程.

老师说:一个人的心志起发于诗,能有些树立于礼,一切品德成就于乐.

:起发也; :卓然自立; :学有成就,义精仁熟之境地.

Confucius said: People arefirstly  inspired by the Book of Poetry; Then their good conduct are established upon the norms of rite,finally with music, they are fulfilled.

8.9 :民可使由之,不可使知之.

本章言为政之道.

老师说:在上者引导人民照着当然如此的道理去做它,但无法使人民对这一定如此的道理去体悟原解它.

Confucius said:It is possible to ask people to follow a behest. It is impossible to make them understanding it.

Connotation:we follow red light to stop,green light to go.  But why not green light to stop and red light to go?

8.10 :好勇疾贫,乱也;人而不仁,疾之已甚,乱也.

本章言小人之行为.

老师说:若是一个好?而又厌恶自己贫穷的人,就易于兴乱.对一个不仁的人,若厌悪他太过份,使他不能容身,也易于兴乱.

疾贫:嫌悪贫穷;

Confucius said:People who are fond of daring and deeply detest their own poverty,they are chaos for the society! As for those rascals,treat them too severely will only force them to become even worse.

8.11 :如有周公之才之美,使骄且吝,其余不足观也已.

本章戒人骄吝,不足成德.

老师说:如有人像周公那样的才智技艺的美好,而行为上骄矜,吝啬.这其它才能也就不直一看了.

周公:名旦,周公旦,周武王之弟.成王之叔.武王崩,成王幼,周公摄政而遭管,,霍三叔忌之.作流言以撼公.周公避居东,作鸱鸮(chi-xiao鸱鸮粤痴嚣,入猫头鹰类之鸟)之诗以贻王.王悟其非,故迎周公归.三叔皆惧,挟殷裔武庾(yu,本字义露天的谷仓).周公东征,杀武庾,诛贬三叔,灭国五十,奠定东南.归而改定官制.创制礼法,周之文物.因以大备,后复营洛邑为东都.与召公 奭(奭音色)分陕而治.

Confucius said:Although a person is as talented and brilliant as the Duke of Zhao (Confucius’Idol ),yet is arrogant and mean,to observe such a person further is worthless.

8.12 :三年学,不至于谷,不易得也.

本章在勉为学在修己,不在禄位.

老师说:经过三年之久的为学修身,而心不向往看求禄位的,这种人眞不容易得到了.

:禄也;

Confucius said:Three years of learning, yet not desirous to seek profits for it,such kind of a character is not easy to find. 

8.13 :笃信好学,守死善道.危邦不入,乱邦不居;天下有道则见,无道则隐.邦有道,贫且贱焉,耻也; 邦无道,富且贵焉,耻也.

本章勉人守道,不为环境转移.

老师说:能有坚定的信仰,又能好学,努力持守着正道,要倾危的国家不入,纲纪混乱的国家不居留,天下清平时,就表现出他的才能来,天下混乱时,就隐藏起来.国家清平时,贫而且贱,这是可耻的.国家在混乱时,富而且贵,这也是可耻的!

笃信:有着深刻的信仰.

Confucius taught:To devoutly believe in a fervent desire to pursue learingn.Prepare to be a martyr defending the path of perfect virtue.Do not enter an unstable state.Do not live in a turbulent state.When righteousness prevails in the world,let yourself be seen.When righteousness disappears, hide yourself as a recluse.In a state of good merit, a person is shameful to be poor and cheap.In a state of low moral standard, a person is considered to be disgraceful if he is  rich and fame.

8.14 :不在其位,不谋其政.

本章言不在职位,不应参与该政务.

老师说:不在这职位上,就不应该参与讨论这职位上的事.

:职位; :策划;

Confucius said:A person who holds no position in a certain job should not discuss its policy.

8.15 :师挚之始,关雎之乱,洋洋乎盈耳哉!

本章说正乐感人之深.

老师说:当太师挚引乐开始,到关雎一章终结,这种悠扬美盛的声音,充满耳中不散啊!

师挚:鲁乐师; :乐之终结; 洋洋乎:声音美盛也;

关雎:(雎音追,有误写睢音须),诗经国风周南首篇篇名,诗序谓咏后妃之德.乐得淑女以配君子.朱熹谓宫人之咏太姒,然诗中无一语及宫闱,故后人或谓为民间咏初昏之诗.

Confucius said:Since the music master Zhi began to play till performing the last chapter of {Guan Ju},how melodious were the music remained echoing in my ears.

8.16 :狂而不直,侗而不愿, 悾悾而不信,吾不知之矣!

本章言人之反常行为,不知如何去教导了.

老师说:狂者进取而不行直道,无知之人而不谨慎忠厚,诚恳之人而不守信实,这些人我不知该怎样去教导他们了.

:意志大进取者也; :(侗音同)无知也;

悾悾: (悾音空)诚垦之貌;

Confucius said:Confident audacity but not upright,na?ve but reluctant to learn,sincere but inconsistent;these are the people I do not know how to teach.

8.17 :学如不及,犹恐失之.

本章言为学无止境.

老师说:为学时常好像赶不上人,既学到了又恐怕忘失了呢.

不及:赶不上人;

Confucius said:Pursue learning persistently as if not catching up, as well as fearing of losing it.

8.18 :巍巍乎!舜禹之有天下也,而不与焉.

本章美舜禹之为君也.

老师说:多么伟大崇高啊!舜禹虽有天下而为人

,并不以有天下为乐.

巍巍:高大貌; 不与:不以居天子之位为乐;

舜禹:古代二帝;帝虞舜,承尧帝退位让贤之祚,舜亦因禹带父()治水不力之罪而立治理洪水有功而让位给他,禹为夏代第一个君主.

Confucius said:How sublime indeed were they! Shun and Yu ruled the world yet they had done nothing favouring exclusively forthemselves. 

8.19 子曰:大哉!尧之为君也,巍巍乎,唯天为大, 唯尧则之,荡荡乎,民无能名焉,巍巍乎,其有成功也.焕乎,其有文章.

本章赞美尧之为君.

老师说:多伟大啊!尧之做天下之君,多崇高啊!只有天最高大了,只有尧可与之相比.多广远啊!人们无法用言语来形容他.多么高大啊,他所成就的功业,多光明灿烂啊!他所留下的礼乐法度.

荡荡:广远貌; 无能名焉:不可用言语形容之;

焕乎:光明灿烂; 文章:礼乐制度;

:上古帝王,陶唐氏.史称唐尧;他死后通过禅让制度由舜继位.成语{尧天舜日}比喻太平盛世.

Confucius said:How magnificent was Yao as a sovereign indeed! How sublime! Heaven above is boundless! Only Yao could level with it.His merits were uncountable.People were unable to find proper words to praise him.

Sublime indeed were his achievements.Brilliant were the norms of rite and music he instituted.

8.20 有臣五人,而天下治.武王曰:子有乱臣十人; …孔子曰:才难,不其然乎? 唐虞之际,于斯为盛,有妇人焉,九人而已.三分天下有其二,以服事殷,周之德,其可谓至德也已矣!

本章论治国之人才难得.并美周之德.

有臣五个人,而天下大治.武王说:我有治臣十人; …老师说:人才难得,可不是如此吗?唐虞(尧舜)的时期,人才会很盛,后来到这周代之初,人才最盛.除了一妇人,其余只有九人而已.三分天下,周就有了二分,周为诸侯之西伯,仍然服从事奉着殷朝天子,周文王之德,可算是最崇高的了.

唐虞之际:唐尧约前2353-2255; 虞舜约前2255-2204.

:帝尧,又称唐尧,(,舜皆生时臣民所称之号.非谥-死后之号),唐尧是帝喾次子.初封陶,后徙唐,故又称陶唐氏,因其子丹朱不肖,在位九十八年崩已立旨传位于舜.

乱臣:治乱之臣也;

虞舜:.初居畎亩.有天下于故称虞舜. (虞故城在今山西省,平陆县东北,周武王于此;春秋时期晋侯借道于虞以灭虢,还师又灭虞),[]:古虞帝,姓姚,初居畎亩之中,能曲尽孝道.所居民多随之,唐尧举使摄政,乃除四凶[四凶族:浑敦(驩兜),穷奇(共工),梼杌(),饕餮(三苗).皆被舜所流放],虞舜举八元八恺,(:善也,:和也,义八文职八武职)天下大治,摄政三十年,受禅即帝位.有天之号曰有虞氏.,民称其号曰.史称虞舜.又称重华.后南巡崩于苍梧之野.在帝位十八年,子商均不肖,传位于禹.

舜有臣五人:,,(xie契音薛;契丹有误读薛音者属约定俗成也),皐陶,伯益;

:自商汤灭夏桀,立商传十八位至盘庚迁都于殷,商也称殷.

周文王:.周武王之父.殷纣王时为西伯侯.国于岐山之下.西伯侯积善施仁.政化大行,崇侯虎谗之于纣,被囚羑(羑音有);其臣散宜生等献纣以美女玉帛得释归.益行善政.诸侯多归之.三分天下有其二.武王有天下,追尊为文王.

周武王:文王之子名.末期,嗣为西伯.殷纣无道,武王率诸侯策征,殷纣牧野自焚而死.武王乃代有天下.即帝位.国都[今陕西长安](hao读号).在位十九年崩.谥曰.

:治也;

乱臣十人:周公旦,召公奭,太公望,毕公,荣公,大颠,闳夭,散而生,南宫括,有归人焉,谓文母;

周公:名旦,周公旦,周文王之子,周武王之弟,成王之叔.武王崩,成王幼,周公摄政而遭管,,霍三叔忌之.作流言以撼公.周公避居东,作鸱鸮(:痴嚣)之诗以贻王.王悟其非,故迎周公归.三叔皆惧,挟殷裔武庾(庾音羽).王命周公东征,杀武庾,诛贬三叔,灭国五十,奠定东南.归而改定官制.创制礼法以及周之文物.因以大备,后复营洛邑为东都.与召公奭(奭音色)分陕而治.

Shun had 5 ministers and his world was governed in good order. Emperor Wu said: I have 10 administration officers to settle all sorts of upheavals.Confucius said:It is hard to find capable people.Is it not so?(now) Only during the epochs of Tang*(Yao) and Yu(Shun) were talents flourished. (Emperor Wu)had 10 administration officers yet 1 was feminine. So there were only 9 men. He secured two third of the world yet serving the Yin Dynasty magnaminously, Emperor Zhou’s virtue could be said to have reached the highest moral standard!

 

8.21:,吾无然矣!菲飲食而致孝乎鬼神,恶衣服而致美乎黻冕,卑宮室而尽力乎沟洫.,吾无然矣!

本章赞美夏禹之功德

老师说:大禹,我对他沒有缺点可以批评的.他对飲食很俭薄,而尽心奉事鬼神,平時的衣服很粗劣,但在祭礼时穿上很美的礼服,住屋很,而尽力疏通水道.消除洪水之灾. 大禹,我對他沒有缺點可以批评的

:(jian粤读谏)空隙/挑拔.谓无空隙缺处可以菲议; :尽力; 黻冕(fu-mian粤读忽免)綉上半青半黑的祭典礼服

沟洫(xu粤读隙)疏通水道

Confucius said:Yu, I could find no flaw in him. His meals were plain and cheap yet his temple offerings were pietiscally luxurious. His usual clothes were ragged and shabby, yet the religious garb he wore was extremely fancy.His home was primitive and he was strenuously dredging ditches to avoid flooding. Oh Yu! I could find no flaw in him.

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