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乡党 第十篇  

2011-08-11 01:12:33|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译乡党 第十篇 共十八章

 

乡党 第十篇 共十八章

 

10.1 孔子于乡党,恂恂如也,似不能言者.其在宗庙,朝廷,便便言,唯谨尔.

本章记孔子在乡党,宗庙,朝廷等言貌之各不同.

孔子在乡里间,温恭信实的态度,好像不善于说话的样子.他在宗庙,朝廷上言辞口若悬河,但仍小心谨慎.

乡党:乡里也; 恂恂如:温恭信实之貌; 便便:明辩之貌;

Confucius at his hometown,looked submissive and sincere He was like he couldn’t talk well.In the ancestorial temple, or at court,his speeches were like impromptus,voluble but cautious.

10.2 朝与下大夫言,侃侃如也,与上大夫言,誾誾(yin誾读银)如也.君在,踧踖(cu-ji踧踖粤读促迹)恭敬而局促不安的样子,义同,与与如也.

本章记孔子在朝廷遇上接下有别.

孔子在朝廷上和下大夫交谈时,态度温和愉快,和上大夫交谈时,中正而适度,国君临朝时,态度恭敬,威仪适度而合乎礼.

侃侃:刚毅正直,和乐貌; 誾誾如:中正态度, 和说而诤; 踧踖:恭敬貌; 与与如:威仪中适貌;

During intermission at court,when Confucius was talking among a group of lower rank officers,he was relaxed and affable. When he was talking among a group of higher rank officers, he conveyed his ideas with justice and gave forthright admonition in a pleasant manner. When the head of state was present, Confucius was acting meticulously cautious yet according to the norm.

10.3 君召使摈,色勃如也.足躩(jue躩粤读霍)如也.揖所与立,左右手,衣前后,(chan粤读蝉)如也.趋进,翼如也.宾退,必复命曰:宾不顾矣.

本章记孔子为使摈之礼.

鲁君使孔子为接待国宾之傧相,他接见外宾,立时变为庄矜的样子,行止谨肃,和他同立的傧相作揖互相联紧,对左边的挥以左手, 对右边的挥以右手,处理迎接上的事宜.衣服整齐而飘动着.前进时,态度舒缓,宾客退了,一定向君复命,:国宾已回去了.

使摈:摈亦作傧,国有外宾,使为迎接之礼者; 勃如:变色为庄矜之貌; 躩如:举足戒慎,不作闲步随意之义; 所与之:谓同为傧者. 襜如:衣服修整而不乱摆动也; 翼如:如鸟舒翼,风度端雅之貌.

The prince assigned Confucius to received guests formally.His countenance was solemn,his pace were swift,he bowed left and right to those beside him,he straightened his robes in front and behind him and hastened forward,with his arms spreading like a pair of wings of a birdsoaring. When the guest had left, he would report to the prince ‘The guest is not looking backward anymore.’

10.4 入公门,鞠躬如也,如不容.立不中门,行不履阈(yu阈粤读域),过位,色勃如也;足躩(jue躩粤读霍)如也,其言似不足者.摄齐(齐读支)升堂,鞠躬如也;屏气似不息者.,降一等,逞颜色,怡怡如也;没阶趋,翼如也.复其位, 踧踖(踧踖粤读促迹)如也.

本章记孔子在朝廷的态度

孔子进入君之朝廷的宫门时,必曲弯着身以示敬,好像宫门低窄容不下似的.不立在门正中,足不践踏,在门限上,遇国君之位时,必立时变得很严肃的样子,两足谨慎而行,言语不敢放肆,好象话没说完的样子.牵着衣摆提升着它到堂上,屏着气息没有呼吸的样子.出来下了一级台阶,放松一点态度颜色,显得和悦些,下完台阶,前进稍速,显得较舒缓像鸟儿舒展翅膀一样,再过君位时,仍是恭恭敬敬地还有不安的样子.

公门:君之宫门; 鞠躬:曲身示敬也; :,门限也; 过位:君在朝听政之位,过此位,态度必立即严肃, 摄齐:齐读支;提升着裳之下摆,亦言将升堂,两手抠衣,恐失足也; 一等:即一级台阶; :放也;

When Confucius entered the palace gate, he bowed low and respectfully,as if there was not enough room to admit him.,he neither stand in the middle of the gate,nor tread on the threshold

When passing the throne, his countenance was solemn, his pace began swifter, and his words were uttered so softly as if he had no breath. As he ascended the dais,he held up his robes,bowed low and held in his breath as if he dared not to breathe.

Exit coming down after descended the first steps,his countenance relaxed and bore a pleased look. From the foot of the steps he advanced rapidly with his arms spreading like wings of a bird. When again in his seat,his manner stillshowed respectful with uneasiness

10.5 执圭,鞠躬如也,如不胜,上如揖,下如授,勃如战色,足蹜蹜如有循,享礼,有容色.私觌(di觌粤读滴),愉愉如也.

本章述大夫为君聘间于邻国之礼.

执着圭到邻国聘问,必当弯腰示敬,执着圭如不胜负荷,以示谨敬.圭执于手,不超过如作揖的高度,下不过如授物之低度,要战战兢兢很敬肃的,举步不可高,沿着一定的路线前进.在接受享礼时,面色要恭敬,等到私自再拜见国君,要和颜悦色的样子.

执圭:/

,大夫聘问邻国,执君之圭以为信; 如不胜,执圭如不胜其重,言敬谨之至也; 上如揖,下如授:言执圭与心齐,高不过揖,低不过授,过高过低皆为不敬; 战色: 战战兢兢之色,庄矜也; 踏缩如有循:言稍举前趾,曳后跟而行,足不高离于地,如足下有物,

循之而前也; 享礼:聘后献物之礼; 容色:和悦之颜色; 私觌:(:会面也)聘礼既毕,使臣再斋已物于次日以私礼拜见于所使之国国君; 愉愉:颜色和悦之貌.

Grasping the Gui (an official tablet of jade,an elongated pinted jade held in the hands on ceremonial occasions),One should carry it meticulously respectful,bowed so cautiously as if it were too heavy and seemed unable to lift it.He raised it as if making a bow,he lowered it as if making a presentation.He expressed an awe look and dragged his feet as though he were walking along a line.When receiging a presenting a ritual gift,his countenance would become jplacid.When he came to sit in the private audience group,he should look cheerful.

10.6 君子不以绀緅饰.红紫不以为亵服,当暑袗絺绤.必表而出之.缁衣羔裘;素衣麑裘;黄衣狐裘.亵裘长,短右袂.必有寝衣,长一身有半.狐貉之厚以居.去丧,无所不佩.非帷裳,必杀之.羔裘,玄冠不以吊.吉月,必朝服而朝.

本章记礼中衣服之规定.

孔子不把深青,绛色做领口袖口的滚边,不把红色紫色做居家的便服,夏天暑热,穿粗质或细质的单衣,外出时必着内衣.冬季,里面着黒羊皮袍,穿黑上衣,里面穿白鹿皮袍,穿白上衣,里面穿黄狐皮袍,家黄上衣,居家着皮裘要长,右袖口短,便于做事.盖的被,比身体要一倍半.狐貉皮毛厚,做坐褥,除了有丧事外,大带上佩玉饰,除了祭服是正幅帷裳外,其余裳的腰下用斜幅裁缝.不穿黑羊裘及黒皮帽去吊丧,月之初一,必穿朝服上朝.

绀緅:深青色.緅绛: zou緅粤读周,黑中带红,jiang绛粤读钢,紫红); :领口袖口滚边;

亵服:私居时所穿着的. :单衣; 絺绤:粤读痴虢,葛之精者曰絺,粗者曰绤.[(]乃表面有花纹的纺织品,用丝作经,用棉,,毛作纬); 表而出之:谓着内衣,再着外表絺绤,出门于外,可不见其体;

缁衣:黑色上衣; 羔裘:黒羊皮之衣裘; 素衣:白色上衣; 麑裘:小鹿皮之皮裘; 狐裘:狐皮之衣裘; 亵裘:居家所穿的衣裘; :衣之袖; 寝衣:小卧被.狐貉之厚以居:(:生也),狐貉毛深厚,作为生褥,取其温厚; :衣带上佩玉; 帷裳:为朝祭之服,其制有正幅为之如帷也; :缝也,帷裳腰下有斜裁四幅,上狭下广,此为古制; 吉月:正月或谓月之朔日(即初一); 玄冠:黑色礼帽.

The superior man would neither use purple or dark purplish colours for facings on his dresses,nor would he use red or violet in his underwears.In hot weather, he wore unlined linen fine or coarse jackets.but always put on top other garments when going out.

On top of lamb-skin,he wore black.on top of fawn fur,he wore white.on top of fox skin, he wore yellow.

At home, he wore a long fur robe,with the right sleeve short.When in bed,he always in pyjamas and had his quilt which was half as longer than his body.

The thick furs of the foxor badger were for cushions.

When out of mourning,he wore all his girdle ornaments.

Except for court or sacrificial dress,his clothes must be tailored.

He did not wear lamb fur or a black cap  on a visit of condolence.

On the first day of the year,he always went to court in full court dress.  

10.7 齐必有明衣,.齐必变食,居必迁坐

本章记斋戒时之规定.

斋戒时,必穿明洁的布衣.斋戒时,必改换日常的饮食,改换日常的居卧之处.

:斋也,古人临祭前必有斋戒; 明衣:斋戒时必沐浴,浴毕着明洁之布衣; 变食:改常食也,不饮酒不茹荤,如蒜韮之类. 迁坐:谓改换常居之处,古人斋戒必自内寝迁于外寝,外寝又称正寝.

On days of fasting,a meticulous clean bathrobe-cloth-made clothe should be wore.Changed the food of meals and moved from the usual place to rest somewhere external.

10.8 食不厌精,脍不厌细,食饐而餲,鱼馁而肉败,不食.色恶不食,臭恶不食,失饪不食,不时不食,割不正,不食.不得其酱,不食.肉虽多,不使胜食气.惟酒无量,不及乱.沽酒,市脯,不食,不撤姜食,不多食.祭于公,不宿肉.祭肉,不出三日.出三日,不食之矣.食不语,寝不言.虽疏食,菜羮,,,必齐如也.

本章记饮食之节.

吃饭不因精细就饱食,食肉不因肉脍(切细的肉minced)就多吃.饭菜馊臭及变味了不吃.鱼烂了,肉腐了,不食.食物的颜色不正常不吃.食物臭了不吃.食物烹调不熟不食.不在进食的时候不食.肉切割的不正常不食.食物应该有酱而未有放的不吃.肉虽多,吃肉不可超过吃饭的数量,饮酒虽无一定的限量,但不可到达喝醉的程度.街上买来的酒和干肉腩,恐怕不洁应该不吃.桌上姜食不随菜肴撒走,不多吃.助君祭祀,分的祭肉,不隔宿再煮食.家祭中的祭肉不存留三天,超出三天就不吃它了. 吃饭时不讲话,睡觉时不言谈.虽然用粗饭,菜汤,瓜类的祭祀,也必定恭敬,如同祭前经过斋戒一样的心意.

:厌餍也,足义,饱食(satiated).(餍症anorexia); :(yi饐粤读意)食物腐败发臭; :(sou粤读收,stale)臭也; :(ai餲粤读隘/形容尿臭则读压)食之变味也; :(nei粤读女,rotten)鱼烂坏; :肉腐坏; 失饪:烹调未熟; 不时:不在食时(亦有解作不合时宜); 胜食气(:,饭也):食菜肴多于食饭; 不撤姜食: 撤作决少也,每餐不乏食姜; 不宿肉:祭后胙(zuo胙粤读造),即日分赐,不待隔日;

One would neither feel satiated on selected fine rice,nor would one feel satiated on finely minced meat.Food turned sour or mouldy,putrid fis or tainted meat,food that were discoloured with bad smell or improperly cooked,must not eat.Do not eat food that were not properly cut,do not eat those dishes without proper sauce,though there were excessive meat on the table, do not eat more meat than rice.Set no limit for wines,but stop drinking when starting to feel inebriated.Do not drink wines that were not home-made,do not eat dried meat bought from the market. After meal, ginger must not be taken away from the table,but do not eat much.

After sacrifice rites at the palace, do not keep the meat received from the ceremony overnight. The meat of other sacrifice , do not keep over three days.If kept longer ,do not eat it.Do not talk while eating and do not speak when resting in bed.

When foods, although,were coarse rice, plain vegetable soup  and simple fruits,should still need to offer a small portion of it in sacrifice with a grave and respectful spirit.

10.9 席不正不坐.

本章说坐席之仪态

坐席未按照规定放置,如方向不正,不坐.

If the sitting mat was not straight with correct positioning according to rite,, do not sit on it.

10.10 乡人饮酒,杖者出,斯出矣.乡人傩,朝服而立于阼阶.

本章记乡饮酒之礼.

乡里中举行乡饮酒之礼时,等扶手杖的人走出了,才跟出去.乡人举行傩礼,驱逐瘟疫之鬼时,穿着朝服立在东阶主人的位置上.

乡人饮酒:为古代乡饮酒之礼; 杖者:老人; 乡人傩: (nuo傩粤读娜)古代在腊月举行的一种驱疫逐鬼的巫舞仪式,后演变为一种舞蹈,安化,{黑茶之乡}之祭舞; 阼阶:(zuo阼粤读做)东阶,主人位也.

In the rural drinking ceremony,the elders with staff would exit first,then followed by others.

At the rural exorcisms,invited observers should wear a court dress and stand on the eastern steps

10.11 问人于他邦,再拜而送之.康子馈药,拜而受之.:丘未达,不敢尝.

本章记与人交往之诚意.

问候他邦的友人之使者,必再拜送之上路.季康子派人赠送药品,礼拜后再接受,并告来使说,()还未知药性,不敢先尝试.

:问候; 康子:鲁国大夫.姓季孙名肥.谥曰康.又称季康子; :赠送; 未达:不明(此指药性);

Sending a messenger to ask about  a friend abroad,one should bow twice and see him off.

When Jikangzi sent Confucius some medicine,Confucius bowed and received it,saying:Qiu do not understand the medicine, I dare not taste it.

10.12 廐焚,退朝.:伤人乎? …不问马.

本章记孔子对人畜轻重之分.

马房被烧掉了,老师退朝回来,问道:有没有伤到人呢? …没有问及马.

:养马之处.jiu廐粤读究;

Stable caught fire. Confucius came home from the court and asked:Any one hurt?

Confucius did not worry about his horses.

10.13君赐食,必正席先尝之.君赐腥,必熟而荐之.君赐生,必畜之.侍食于君,君祭先饭.,君视之.东首,加朝服,拖绅.君命召,*俟驾行矣.

本章记事君之礼.

君赐给食物,先将席位摆正才尝它.君赐生肉,必先煮熟,进献于祖先.君赐生畜,必定将牠畜养起来.侍奉国君同食,在君祭时,便先吃饭.遇病卧时,君来探看,头向东卧,身上披盖着朝服,拖着大带,君有命来召,不等待仆人驾车,先徒步而往,赶去应命

正席先尝:敬君之惠也; :生肉也; :以食进献于祖庙; 君祭先饭:于君祭时,先自吃饭,若为君尝食之义; 东首:病者卧床,首在东,君临榻前,君正南面; 加朝服拖绅:病卧不能着衣带,故将朝服加在身上,并把大带拖在朝服上.以示敬意.

*(si粤读自,等待),mo-qi万俟愎姓,qi粤读期.

When the prince send Confucius a present of food,the master must set his mat straight and taste it first.When the rince sent him raw meat,the master would cook it and make a sacrificial offering. When the prince sent Confucius some llivestock,he would rear it. When attending a meal with the prince, while the prince performing the sacrificial ceremony, the master would taste the meal first.(to ensure that the food was safe to eat).When the master was sick and the prince came to see him,he would lie  with his head to the east,with his court dress spread across him placing the girdle over it.When being summoned by the prince,the master would go at once without waiting for his carriage to be yoked.

10.14 入太庙,每事问.

本章重出,见八佾3.15 子入大庙,论语重述孔子求知之态度.

When master entered the Grand Temple, he would ask about everything.

 

 

10.15 朋友死,无所归.:于我殡.朋友之馈,虽车马,非祭肉不拜.

本章记孔子交友之义.

朋友死了,无家人办理丧葬,老师说:把柩停在我家吧,朋友的馈赠,虽有车马之类贵重礼品,受之不拜.除非是祭肉,均不拜.(拜受祭肉以示敬重其祖)

:死者殓于棺,停柩待葬曰殡; :馈赠也.

A friend died and no one was in charge of his funeral. The master said:Leave the funeral to me.

When a friend sent the master a gift,although it might be a carriage and horses, yet, as long as it was not some sacrificial meat, the master would not bow for it.

10.16 寝不尸,居不容.*齐衰((齐衰读支崔)),虽狎必变.见冕者,与瞽(gu音鼓),虽亵必以貌.凶服者式之.式负版者.有盛馔,必变色而作.迅雷,风烈,必变.

本章记孔子容貌以礼而变之义. 参阅9.9

仰睡时不挺直身体像死尸一样,在家闲居时不庄肃着仪容,见到着丧服的人,虽平时很亲昵不拘,必变容表示哀悼,见戴着官帽和盲者,虽是经常相见的人,必以礼貌很恭敬的待他们.如坐在车上见到穿丧服之人,凭轼以礼示敬.对手上握着国家版图的人也凭着轼示意.朋友盛宴款待,必肃容起立表示敬谢.听到行急雷,有暴风,必变色表示不安.

:仰卧如死尸; 齐衰:(齐衰读支崔)丧服名称,五服之一; :xia狎粤读匣,亲昵而不拘细节; :燕见,时常相见而亲昵者,无虽行君臣之礼者; :同轼,车前横木,人在车中,俯凭横木以示敬者; 负版者:负邦国之版图者; 盛馔:宴宾客之丰盛肴馔.

While sleeping, Confucius would not sleep lying down facing up like a corpse.At home, Confucius would sit at ease and not kneel on mat as if receiving guests.As he came across someone wearing a mourning-cloth,though Confucius was with his friends, he would put on a solemn expression. On seeing someone in full official dress,or a vision impaired person,though he might know him well, he would show a polite attitude to him.

When seeing a person mourning from his carriage, Confucius would bow forward to the crossbar,.

Before a gorgeous feast,Confucius would change countenance and rise up to show respect. On a sudden clap of thunder,or a violent gust of wind,Confucius would change countenance to express serious concern. 

10.17 升车,必正立执绥.车中,不内顾,不疾言,不亲指.

本章记登车之容.

上车时,必正面立着把着车索登车.在车上,不回头看,不高声讲话,不用手指东西指点.

:挽以上车之绳索; 疾言:高声也

When Confucius mounting his carriage, he would always stand straight and grasp the cord.Within the carriage, Confucius would not look around. Neither would he speak hastily nor pointing his hands anywhere.

10.18 色斯举矣,翔而后集. :山粱雌雉,时哉, 时哉; …子路共之,三嗅而作.

本章述孔子偕子路在山中见雉赞鸟之四警觉性.

见到人的情形不对,一举身便飞走了.在空中回翔细看,才飞落下来相集一起,老师说:山涧上的那些雌雉,很懂得时机啊, 很懂得时机啊. 子路拱起手来表示敬意.而那雌雉见状即三次的舒翼下翔,便飞去了.

色斯举矣:雉见人()色不对或环境有异常,即举身而去了; 翔而后集:鸟回翔审顾而后下集; 山粱:山涧水上之木桥; 拱之:两手相合表示敬意.

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤读灰),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai粤读拐;gui瞶粤读贵,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Observing the countenance,the hen pheasants rose instantly,flew around, by and by and again it settled. Confucius said:These hen pheasants on the hill-bridge! How vigilant! How vigilant!

Zilu made a respectful gesture to them,The hen pheasants spread their wings and flew away.

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