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子罕 第九篇  

2011-08-11 01:46:02|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译子罕 第九篇 共三十章

 

子罕  第九篇 共三十章

子罕 第九篇 共三十章

9.1 罕言利,与命,与仁.

本章言孔子少言利.只赞许命和仁.

孔子少言到利,只赞许命和仁的道理.

:稀少义; :称许也;

Confucius scarcely talked about gainings.He was concerned with topics on Heaven-Mandate and benevolent-act.

9.2 达巷党人曰:大哉!孔子!博爱而无所成名.…闻之,谓门弟子曰:吾何执? 执御乎? 执射乎? 吾执御矣!

本章记孔子闻到别人不正确的批评,*戮而答之.

达巷党的人说:伟大的孔子?! 他学问渊博,无所不能,但没有一项成名. …老师听到以后,对门弟子们说:我该专执那一项呢? 专执驾车为御,还是专执射艺为射士呢?我还是专执御罢!

达巷党:达巷,党名,古时五百家为一党;

无所成名:无一艺而有美名; :为人驾车; :其所执为卑也; :善射则为人上;

*:lu粤读六,并合,戮力同心;

A member of the Daxiang society said:Great as the master Kong! He is so erudite yet has no specialty to earn him fame.

Confucius heard and spoke to his disciples:What shall I be specialized in? Shall I be specialized in driving?(as a driver) Shall I be specialized in archery?(expert to kill) I jprefer to be a driver?(driving an archery)

9.3 :麻冕,礼也;今也纯,,吾从众.拜下,礼也,今拜乎上,泰也;虽达众,吾从下.

本章说礼当从恭俭为是.

老师说:祭礼中戴细麻冠,这是古礼,现今用黑丝做的,比较俭省,我当跟从大家如此.臣对君行礼拜于堂下,这是古礼,现今都拜于堂上,这样太骄了些,虽不同于众,我还是在堂下拜.

麻冕:以细麻为冠冕; :黑丝; 拜下:臣与君行礼,当拜于堂下,君辞之,乃升成拜;

Confucius said:A linen cap is prescribed by the norm of rite.Now a black silk cap is generally worn. As it is thrifty, I agree with the majority.

To bow at the lower hall is prescribed by the rules of ceremony. Now,it is generally performed after ascending the hall. How presumptuous! Contradictory to the majority it may be, I still bow at the lower hall.

9.4 绝四: 毋意,毋必,毋固,毋我.

本章言孔子断绝了四种不正确的观念.

老师断绝了四种不正确的观念,没有主观性的妄猜, 没有武断性之必然, 没有固执之己见, 没有偏私之心.

:臆测; :肯定; :固执; :私心.

…In order to focus on the transformation of the self, Confucius is said to have freed himself from four things: opinionatedness,dogmatism, obstinancy,and egotism.

9.5 畏于:文王旣没,文不在兹乎? 天之将丧斯文也,后死者,不得与于斯文也;天之未丧斯文也,匡人其如予何?

本章记孔子临危难,尚以天命自持不惧以服弟子.

老师在遭围攻而生戒心,他说:文王已死,大家的礼乐制度文化,不是就在这里么?如果天意要丧失这华夏文化,那么我这个后死的人,也不会知道这些文化了.如果天意不要丧失这些文化,人能把我怎样呢?

明朝<<石刻圣迹图:匡人解围>>:孔子国路过国的,阳虎()曾施暴于此地.孔子长相类似阳虎,人就把他围困了五天.弟子们很害怕.孔子:文王既然已经去世,天意把道德文化都放在我这里,人能把我怎么样呢?…人说:“我们误认为是阳虎.”遂即解除围困.放了孔子师徒.

:有戒心;

:[春秋]卫国陈国之间一地名,在今河北省 长垣县西南,后汉书郡国志长垣县有匡.阳虎曾施暴政于匡,孔子貌似阳虎,匡人见孔子,以为是阳虎,误围而攻之;

斯文:礼乐制度; 后死者:孔子指自己.

…Con fucius’faith in the survivability of the culture that he cherished and the workability of the approach to taching that he propounded was so steadfast that he convinced his followers as well as himself that Heaven was on their side.When Confucius’life was threatened in [Kuang],Confucius said:Since the death of 文王does not the mission of [culture]rest here in me? If Heaven intends this [culture]to be destroyed,those who come after me will not be able to have any part of it. If Heaven does not intend this [culture]to be destroyed,then what can the men of Kuangdo to me?

9.6 大宰问于子贡:夫子圣者与?何其多能也? …子贡曰:固天纵之将圣,又多能也.…闻之曰:大宰知我乎?吾少也贱,故多能鄙事.君子多乎哉?不多也!…:子云:吾不试,故艺.

本章述孔子多才多艺.

大宰子贡:你们的老师是位圣人吧?不然他怎会多才多艺呢? …子贡说:这本是天意他成为大圣,使他这样的多才多艺.…老师听到了说:大宰知道我么?我小时候微贱,所以能做很多粗俗的事,一个君子亦多才多艺吗?不必要多才多艺的!…牢说:老师不是说过:我不为世用,所以才有时间去学习这些才艺的.

大宰:官名; :不为限量也; 将圣:大圣也; 不试:不用,言不为世所用;

:,,子开.孔子弟子;

子贡:国人.(贡本作赣),姓端木名赐.孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.,.尝说出师敌以存.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于.

A senior minister asked Zigong:Is your master a sage?

Why is he so versatile?

Zigong replied:As Heaven decided him to become a sage,he istherefore versatile by nature.

When Confucius heard it, he said:Does the minister know me? I was destitute when young.Therefore I was able do many primitive jobs.Does a noble person need to learn so much? Not so!

Lao quoted the Master,‘Confucius says,having no job,I therefore acquired more arts.’

9.7 :吾有知乎哉?无知也.有鄙夫问于我,空空如也;我叩其两端而竭焉.

本章言孔子行乎中道,人有疑问,亦必释其两端之疑而归于中道.

老师说:我有什么特别有所知吗? 我是没有的.(一切都顺乎天理中道去想和去做); 如果有一个世俗之人来问我,他是那样的无知,我一定探问他对事理看法偏差的两端的怀疑没有了为止.(使之一切归乎中道).

鄙夫:鄙俗之人; 空空:无知之荒貌; :探问也; 两端:一切事理之两头,或两边之义;

Confucius said:Do I have knowledge? No,I don’t!  If a vulgar person asked me a question so abstract and imbecile,I shall infer the extremes of his enquiry and do my best to think of a moderate answer.  

Connotation: Answering a fool according to his folly.

9.8 :凤鸟不至,河不出图,吾已矣夫?

本章孔子叹道之不行.

老师说:凤鸟不来,黄河也不出图,我要实行的王道恐将没有希望了!

凤鸟出,河出图皆圣王出世道承乎之象征.

Confucius said:The phoenix ceases to arrive.The yellow River presents no more chart.It is all over with my ambition!

9.9 见齐衰者(ci-cui齐衰粤读支崔),冕衣裳者,与瞽者(gu粤读鼓),见之,虽少必作,过之必趋.

本章述孔子见到有丧者,在位者,伤残者,必以礼.

老师看见穿丧服的人,穿礼服礼冠的官员,和盲者,看到了他们虽然是少年,亦必起立,或走过他的旁边,亦必走快些(以不妨碍其行)

齐衰:( ci-cui齐衰粤读支崔)丧服名称.五服之一也; 冕衣裳;制服;

:gu粤读鼓.瞎人也;

When Confucius saw a person wearing mourning clothes,or in official robes of the state, or a vision impaired person,he would always rise up although they may be younger; if Confucius was to pass them,he would always speed up his pace 

9.10 颜渊喟然叹曰:仰之弥高,钻之弥坚,瞻之在前,忽焉在后,夫子循循然善诱人,博我以文,约我以礼.欲罢不能,旣竭吾才,如有所立.卓尔,虽欲从之,末由也已!

本章说颜渊赞叹孔子之道高深.

颜渊叹说:老师之道,越仰望着越觉高远.越钻研越觉深坚.忽觉就在眼前,一下又觉远在背后看不见了.老师循着程序逐步引导我们.先教我们博通于文章典籍,又拿礼来约束我们的言行,使得我们想停下来也不能.已经竭尽我的才能和气力,像已经有了些成就,但再一看老师的道,峻高突出那种崇伟样子,我又觉得无路可达呢!

喟然:叹声; :益也; :深探之也; 循循然:有次序貌; :引进; 卓尔:峻高突出之貌; 末由也已:言无路可从之也.

颜渊:521-490颜名回.字子渊,亦谓颜渊.鲁国人.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..敏而好学.问一知十,孔子自认不如.回不迁怒,不贰过,贫居陋巷,(音单)食瓢(音嫖),而不改其乐.孔子称其贤.早卒,后世尊为复圣.

Yan Yuan exclaimed with a sigh:The more I look up, the higher it soars, the deeper I drill, the harder it becomes,I see it in front of me and suddenly,its behind. Gradually and systematically, the master induces my interest on it.(his doctrine).It has broadened me with culture and restrained me with the norms of rite.I am unable to stop even if I want to. Having exerted all my ability and thought to have acquired some outstandins,there still seems deeds standing un-surmountable before me.Although I have long for reaching it, I can find no way to do so.

9.11 疾病,子路使门人为臣,病间曰:久矣哉!由之行诈也.无臣而为有臣,吾谁欺? 欺天乎?且予与其死于臣之手也,无宁死于二三子之手乎?且予纵不得大葬,死于道路乎?

本章述孔子对自己死后丧葬,不违于礼.

老师病重,子路使门弟们为家臣,当孔子病稍轻时, (孔子知道这事):我很久没有家臣了,由在做不实骗人的事啊!我无家臣而做着有家臣,我欺骗谁? 我欺骗天吗?而且我与其死在家臣的手上,倒不如死在门弟子手上呢! 我纵然得不到用卿大夫的葬礼,难道我会死在道路上吗?

:家臣; 病间:病稍轻; 行诈:用诈骗方法欺人; 大葬:以君臣之礼葬;

:姓仲名由字子路一字季路:鲁国卞人,孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.卫大夫孔悝(kui粤读灰),以为邑宰,时出公在位,孔悝母伯姬与竖良夫谋立.太子(kuai粤读拐)(gui粤读贵)廹孔悝与蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公奔.子路入,见蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

When Confucius was very ill,Zilu ordered some disciples to act as butlers and retainers.During a spell of better moment,Confucius said: Long time have I been without retainers.You’s(Zilu) act was deceitful.Pretending that there are retainers while I have none.Whom do I deceive? Do I deceive Heaven? Moreover, should I die in the hands of retainers, would it not be better to die in the hands of my disciples? And if I do not qualify for a Grant burial (because I do not have retainers),will I then drop dead on the roadside?

9.12 子贡曰:有美玉于斯,韫匮(匚中贵亦写作卖)而藏诸?求善贾而沽诸? …子曰:沽之哉!沽之哉!我待贾者也.

本章言孔子蓄德待用于世.

子贡说:有块美玉在此,用匣子藏着呢还是找个好价钱卖掉呢? …老师说:卖掉它吧! 卖掉它吧! 我也是等着好价卖的啊!

韫匮:收藏也; 善贾:高价(贾同价); :卖也;

子贡: 卫国人.(贡本作赣),姓端木名赐.孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于齐.

Zigong said:A beautiful jade as such,should I hide it in a hard-wood jewelry box or seek a good price to sell it?

Confucius said:Sell it,sell it. I am waiting for a good merchant to buy me too.

9.13欲居九夷,或曰:,如之何? …子曰:君子居之,何陋之有?

本章言孔子欲往推行大道于蛮荒.

老师想到东方九夷之地去居住,有人说:那里文化太落后,怎么可以呢? …老师说:如果有道的君子去居住,那还有什么落后呢?

九夷:东方有九种羣夷之族; :文化落后.

Confucius wanted to venture and live among the 9 primitive tribes at the east.Someone said:What would you do with such an uncivilized territory?

Confucius said:When a civilized person is living in it, How can it still be uncivilized?

9.14:吾自,然后乐正,,颂各得其所.

本章述孔子修正了乐和雅颂.

老师说:我从卫国回到鲁国后,把音乐订正了,使雅和颂的诗乐,恢复了原来的体制规定.

乐正雅颂:订正音乐,雅颂等之礼制合于规定;

Confucius said: Only after I returned Lu from Wei,were musics amended,Imperial songs and Praise songs sorted out properly.

9.15:出则事公卿,入则事父兄,丧事不敢不勉,不为酒困,何有于我哉?

本章言奉公事亲,治丧,慎酒之要.

老师说:出仕事于公卿,居家事奉父兄,治丧不敢不尽其礼,不为酒之过量而乱,这些对我有何困难呢?

:出仕; :居家; 酒困:为酒所乱;

Confucius said:At work,serving the superiors; at home,taking care of parents and brothers;dare not to neglect and not doing the utmost in funerals,do not indulge in wine;Do I have any problem with the above?  

9.16在川上,:逝者如斯夫?舍不昼夜.

本章孔子警时不居也.

老师站在河岸上说:光阴就像流走的河水,不分昼夜地无止息的流逝.

:去也; :同舍义.

Standing on a riverbank,Confucius said:Time passes like water flowing in the river.Not ceasing day or night.

Connotation:time passes like river of no return.

9.17 :吾未见好德如好色者也.

本章孔子寓意人多于好色而薄于德.

老师说:我没有看见过像喜好美色那样喜好道德的人.

明朝<<石刻圣迹图:丑次同车>>:孔子蒲地反回国后,住在大夫蘧伯玉.一天,卫灵公出游,他与夫人同乘前面的车.孔子乘后面的车.孔子生气地说:我从来没见过喜好美德像喜好美色一样的人;…于是孔子便离开了.

Confucius said:I have not seen a person who is fond of virtue as fond of beauty.

9.18 :譬如为山,未成一篑,,吾止也.譬如平地,虽覆一篑,,吾往也.

本章勉人力行.进止皆由自量而为.

老师说:譬如堆一土山,只少了一竹笼的土未能完成,这停止下来,是由我自己.譬如在平地上,只堆上了一笼土,也继续不停的堆上去,这也是由我自己决定的啊!

:,土笼,盛泥土之竹器;

Confucius said:As if building a mountain,should I have stopped at the last basket of earth that would finish it,its my decision of doing so.As in leveling the ground, if I keep on going even after  laying down only the first basket of earth, It is my decision to proceed.

Connotation: people should be able to judge the limit of their ability.

9.19 :语之而不,其回也与?

本章赞美颜回努力不懈.

老师说:告诉那些道理便能力行不懈的人,那只有颜回了吧?

:告也; :懈怠也.

颜回: 521-490颜名回.字子渊,亦称颜渊.孔子弟子.孔子称其贤(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..后世尊为后圣.回不迁怒:不将怒气迁移到别人身上; 不贰过:不再犯已犯过的过失错误.

Confucius said:He who excerts all my teachings,only Hue (Yan Yuan) can do.

9.20 颜渊:惜乎吾见其进也,吾未见其止也.本章惜颜渊()早夭,美其努力不止.

老师说到颜回,叹道:可惜啊!我只看见他努力前进,我没看见他有一时的停止呢.

惜乎:此可惜颜回之早夭;

颜渊: 521-490颜名回.字子渊,亦谓颜渊.鲁国人.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..敏而好学.问一知十,孔子自认不如.回不迁怒,不贰过,贫居陋巷,(音单)食瓢(音嫖),而不改其乐.孔子称其贤.早卒,后世尊为复圣.

Confucius said of Yan Yuan:What a pity he died so young! I have seen him persistently advances.Never have I seen him stop doing so.

9.21 :苗而不秀者,有矣夫?秀而不实者,有矣夫?

本章孔子叹为学者,浅深两个学程,未底于成.

老师说:禾苗已生而未能开花,这样情形有的是啊,禾旣开花而未能结穗, 这样情形有的是啊!

苗而不秀:谷已生禾而未开花; 秀而不实:禾已开花而未结穗.

Confucius said:There are sprouts springing up but never come to flowering.There are also flowers never come to  bearing any fruits.

9.22:后生可畏,焉知来者之不如今也;四十,五十,而无闻焉,斯亦不足畏也已.

本章勉人当及时进德修业.

老师说:年少之人(指年富力强,努力进取)是可敬畏的.安知道后来的一辈人不如现在的这一辈呢?假使到了四五十岁仍然没有什么成就的话,那就也没有什么值得敬畏的了.

后生:年少后进之人; :(副词);

Confucius said:Awe is due to the youth.Yet we can foretell if they are incompatible with us today. A person remains unheard of at forty or fifty,can not be awesome!

9.23:法语之言,能无从乎?改之为贵!巽与之言,能无说乎?绎之为贵,说而不绎,从而不改,吾未如之何也已矣!

本章言知行当并重.如知而不行,知亦徒然.

老师说:有理法的正言告诫,能不听从吗?要能真正改正过来才可贵.婉言异论相劝的话,能不喜悦吗?要能寻思其中的要义所在才可贵.只知喜悦的而不去寻思,只知听从而不改正,我就对他没有办法了.

法语:正正经经告诫之辞; :同悦; :寻绎其要义所在; 巽与之言:=恭顺也,婉然相劝之辞;

Confucius said:Rules of the Law, who dares not to observe? It is however praisable to those who observe it and reform themselves.Dissident are elquent to use pleasing words.Who are not interested to listen? It is praisable to those who like to listen andcan ponder it.For those who listen without pondering, observe rules but do not reform themselves,I do not know how to teach them.

9.24:主忠信,毋友不如己者.过则勿惮改.

本章重出,已见学而篇1.8

Confucius said:Bearing  faithfulness and trustworthiness as main principle,do not keep friends that are not compatible to yourself.When faults occur,do not fear to correct it.

9.25:三军可夺帅也.匹夫不可夺志也.

本章言人之守志不能移.

老师说:三军之多,可以把他的主帅掳夺过来,一个人之守志不移,谁也夺不了.

三军:军队之通称; 匹夫:普通之人;

江山易改,禀性难移.

Confucius said:An whole army can be deprived of  their commander. An a single ordinary person can not he deprive of his/her will.

Connotation:A person’s natural temperament is unchangeable.

9.26:衣敝缊袍,与衣狐貉(貉读壳)者立而不耻者,其由也与?不忮不求,何用不臧(臧读装)? …子路终身诵之; …子曰:是道也,可足以臧?

本章孔子子路亦勉他勿以小善自满.

老师说:穿着破旧的棉袍,和穿着狐貉皮裘的人同站在一起,而不觉可耻的,只有仲由能够吧?诗经上有这两句:不去嫉害也不贪求,无论用在什么地方不好呢? …子路常诵这两句诗,老师说:这种做人起码的道理,那能算是善呢?

敝缊袍:破旧的絮袍; 狐貉:貉音壳,亦叫狗獾(獾读灌)badger形似狐,身较肥,尾较短.以狐貉之皮为裘者,衣之贵美也; :嫉人而欲加害之; :臧音装,善也.

Confucius said:Wearing a tattered and quilted robe,standing by the side of a fur wearing person and would not feel ashame of it,who else but You(Zilou).

(The book of Poetry)‘Free of Jealousy and greed,how can it be not perfect’;Thereafter, Zilu for the rest of his life kept reciting it.Confucius said:Such are by no means sufficient to achieve perfect virtue.

9.27:岁寒,然后知松柏之后凋也.

本章以松柏喻君子之节义,不随俗转移.

老师说:到岁末寒冷时,才知道松柏是在众草最后凋零的.

:雕零衰落;

Confucius said:Only in the cold season,do we know that the pine and cypress are the last to fade.

9.28:知者不惑,仁者不忧,勇者不惧.

本章言知仁勇之德修养所得之境界.

老师说:有智德的人不会迷惑.有仁德的人不会忧虑.有勇德的人不会畏怯.

:智者;

Confucius said:Wise people have no doubts.Benevolent people have no worries,brave people have no fears.

9.29:可与共学,未可与共适道, 可与适道,未可与立,可与立,未可与权.

本章分别各人道德修养上的差别.

老师说:可以和他一起学习,未必可以和他一同向道, 可以和他一同向道,未必可以和他一同向道.可以和他一同向道, 未必可以和他一同立定正道不变. 可以和他一同立定在正道上,未必和他能同样的对事物之权宜处理

适道:适者往也,即向道; :立志坚定不移; :秤锤也.权衡轻重缓急而处理之得宜也.

Confucius said:There people we can be traiedn but can not work together.There are others we can work together but we may not achieve success together.There are people we can achieve success together,but we ca not have the same ranking of power like each other.

9.30 唐棣之华,偏其反而.岂不尔思,室是远而. …子曰:未之思也,夫何远之有?

本章言道不远人,思则得之之义.

[诗上说]唐棣的花,翩翩地翻动着,心里难道不想念你吗?但是唐室相隔太远了.…老师说:只是没有想念罢了,如真的在想念,有什么远呢?

{唐棣之是远而}:此四句?逸诗; 唐棣:树名,亦称棠棣, (山树如樱桃树,郁李树等);:花也; :同翩,:同翻,翩翻:花枝动摇之貌也.

A poem reads ‘How the flowers of the Asphnphum flutter and turn? Do  I think of  you? But you are so far away!’

Confucius criticised the poem:I do not understand this poem.How can it be too far to miss someone? Just not thinking, thats all!

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