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雍也 第六篇  

2011-08-11 16:49:05|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译雍也 第六篇 共二十七章

 

雍也 第六篇 共二十七章

 

6.1:,可使南面; …仲弓问子桑

伯子,子曰:可也,;…仲弓曰:居敬而行简,以临其民,不亦可乎?居简而行简,无乃大简乎?…子曰:雍之言然.

本章说明为政在简之道.

…老师说:()雍啊, 可以使之为诸侯;

仲弓(冉雍,字仲弓):子桑伯子这人怎样? …老师说:他为政还可以,能宽略待民; …仲弓说:若存心敬肃,再行事宽略,以这样治民,岂不是好吗? 若居心宽略,而做事也宽略,未免就太粗疏无法度了吧?! …老师说:雍的话说得对了.

:姓冉(ran)名雍字仲弓,孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).

南面:君听政之位,指冉雍之才德,可使任诸侯.

子桑伯子:鲁国人; :为政宽略不烦也; 居敬:心存敬肃也; 行简:为政对人民行事宽略,不扰于民也; 太简:敬事苟且粗疏,无法度可守也;

Confucius Confucius said:Yong,he can be assigned for the southern post(vassal;a chief administrative position).

Zhonggong(Yong’2nd name) asked about Zisang Bozi.Confucius said:His policy is generous,simple and easy to cope with.

Zhonggong said: If a person is solemn and respectful,apply such relax policy on people,how would it not BE workable? However if a person is himself is easy and relax,would it not be indulgent for himto carry out such kind of a policy?

Confucius said:See,Yong is so right!   

6.2哀公问弟子孰为好学? 孔子对曰:有颜回者好学,不迁怒,不贰过.不幸短命死矣.今也则亡,未闻好学者也.

本章深许颜回好学.

哀公问弟子中那一位最好学? 孔子答:有颜回这人好学,不迁怒于别人,不重犯相同的过错,很不幸短命早死了,目前这样的人还没有,没听到有好学的哩.

:同无.

哀公:鲁哀公?-468名蒋,为春秋诸侯国鲁国君主之一,是鲁国第二十六任君主.他为鲁定公儿子,承袭鲁定公担任鲁国君主,公元前494-468年在位,共在位27.

颜回:521-490颜名回.字子渊,亦称颜渊.孔子弟子.孔子称其贤(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..后世尊为后圣.不迁怒:不将怒气迁移到别人身上; 不贰过:不再犯已犯过的过失错误.

Duke Ai asked which of the Confucius’disciples fond of learning the most.Confucius replied:There was Yang Hui the most fond of learning.He would not vent his anger upon anyone.He would not repeat his mistakes. Unfortunately, he died young.Now there is not such a person,I have not heard anyone who was fond of learning.

6.3子华使于,冉子为其母请粟.子曰:与之釜; …请益; …曰:与之庾; …冉子与之粟五秉; …子曰:赤之适齐也,乘肥马衣轻裘.吾闻之也,君子周急不继富;原思为之宰,与之粟九百,; …子曰:! 以与尔邻里乡党乎!

本章言君子当周人之急而不继富.

子华出使,冉子代子华母亲请发米粮.老师说:给六斗四升; …冉求以为少,请增多些;…老师说:加二斗四升吧; …冉求给了八十斛; …老师说:,这次到齐国,驾着肥壮的马,穿着轻美的皮裘,我听说过,应该周济人的急难,而不给富有的更加富有;原思孔子的家臣,老师给他九百斛,他推辞不肯接受.老师说:不要推辞,可分些给那邻里堂中的人家啊!

:六斗四升; :二斗四升; :十六斛(hu),一斛乃十斗,后来改五斗; 九百:当是九百斛; :推让不敢接受(认为太多也); :禁止; 周急不继富:当周济急困者,而不续富者之有余.

子华():姓公西名赤,字子华,孔子弟子.束带立朝,知宾主之仪.

冉子:姓冉名求522-489鲁人,字子有,(ran)亦称冉有又称有子,孔子弟子,有才艺,性谦退,季氏之宰.

原思:姓原名宪,字思.孔子弟子.孔子为鲁司寇时,以原思为家宰.

Zihua was sent on a mission to Qi. His classmate Ran You was applying ration for Zihua’s mother.Confucius said: Grant her a Fu (=6.4 bushels). Ran You requested to increase the quantity.Confucius said:Give her a Yu then,(=16bushels).

Ran You gave her 5 Bings instead(=800 bushels).

Confucius said:When Chi(Zihua’s 1st name)left for Qi,he had sleek horses attached to his carriage, he wore light furs(luxuries).I have heard that,its virtuous to help the needy and not to add wealth to the rich. 

When Yuan Si was a butler for Confucius,Confucius paid him 900 measures of grain.Yuan Si felt that he was over-paid and declined to accept. Confucius said:Do not refuse, why not share it with your neighbours and villagers

6.4仲弓:犂牛之子,(xing)且角,虽欲勿用,山川其舍诸?

本章论仲弓之品德不为其父所累

老师评论仲弓如:耕牛所生的小牛,色赤而头角端正,人虽不想用牠,那山川之神怎肯舍弃牠呢?

(xing)赤色的牛或马;

仲弓:,仲弓,比孔子细二十九岁,国人.冉雍出身贫贱,他的父亲行为不良,有人以此作为攻击冉雍的借口.孔子弟子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).

犂牛:耕牛(:肉牛称窂),不以为牲供于祭祀; 骍且角:/赤色(周代尚赤),祭牲用骍,/谓其角周正.合于牺牲之选也; :用于祭祀; 山川:指山川之神; :同舍;

Confucius allegorically said of Zhonggong(whose father was a criminal):The calf of a brindled cow has red cowhide and fine horns,although its eligible to be a sacrd-cow, yet rejected by secular humanism (because of its bloodline),would the gods of the mountain and rivers foresake it too? 

6.5:回也,其心三月不违仁,其余则日月至焉而已矣.

本章评颜回以仁存心,较别人为高.

…老师说:回啊! 他心存仁德到三个月之久都不违失,其余的人只有一个月或数天罢了.

三月:三月之久,仁心不失; 日月至焉:言仁心不失至一个月,或数日而已;

:521-490颜名回.字子渊,亦谓颜渊.鲁国人.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..敏而好学.问一知十,孔子自认不如.回不迁怒,不贰过,贫居陋巷,箪食(dan;古时竹饭碗)瓢饮(piao,剖开的葫芦以盛水),而不改其乐.孔子称其贤.早卒,后世尊为复圣.

Confucius said:Hui is capable to keep his moral rectitude 3 to 90 times longer than average people!

6.6季康子:仲由可使从政也与? …子曰:由也果,于从政乎何有? …曰:赐也可使从政也与? …曰:赐也达,于从政乎何有? …曰:,可使从政也与? …曰:求也艺,于从政乎何有?

本章分别评论子路,子贡,冉有之才能品德.

季康子:可以使仲由从事于政事吗?…老师答:(子路),这人有决断,对于从事政治还有什么困难? …又问道:,可以使他从事于政治吗?…老师答:端木赐(子贡)! 这人通达事理,对于从事政治还有什么困难?…又问:冉求,可以使他从事政治吗?…老师答:!这人多才多能,对于从事政治还有什么困难?

季康子:复姓季孙.谥曰.?-468国大夫正卿事鲁哀公,此时国公室衰弱.季孙族系之名乃公子季友之后.亦称为季氏.季康子位高权重,是当时国的权臣. {历史背景}季康子季孙肥,春秋时期国的正卿.姬姓,季氏,.谥康.史称季康子.季孙肥[]字则为尊称,所以说季孙并不是氏称,季孙某仅限于对宗主的称谓而已,宗族一般成员只能称季某.季孙肥季氏,而非季孙氏.季平子季桓子,季桓子季康子.季氏为首的三桓强盛,季氏宗主季康子位高权重,是当时国的权臣.再叙历史上此时孔子门生的政迹:鲁定公十五年,公薨,哀公蒋.当时,季桓子为首的{三桓}甚为强盛.哀公二年,季桓子,子肥,是为季康子.当时的,,国两个大国的夹缝里生存,处境不是很好.{三桓}之间的关系也不是很融洽,季康子的专权,让其它二桓:叔孙氏,孟氏很不满.哀公七年(486),(夫差)无礼,强逼国贡献百牢(一百条牢[肉牛];礼制定各诸侯贡礼不能超过十二牢),国被迫贡献,继而国太宰(pi,本字解形大也)季康子来朝见他,虽然国不如国强,康子还是拒绝了,似乎很有气节,实则他觉得国虽大却难成气候,最终仍是无法称霸的,故无惧于他.哀公十一年(482),国入侵,叔孙,孟氏季氏专权,不肯听从季康子的号令将人拦在国土之外.季康子任用孔子的弟子冉有,击退了,接着会同国在艾陵大败,史称艾陵之战.然而此战之后,季康子却加紧战备,以防国再来.哀公十一年,季康子使公华,公宾,公林以币(古代赠送宾客或用于祭祀的束帛.币帛)来迎接孔子回国.至此,{三桓}逐出国的孔子终于得以回,并完成他晚年修书的事业.可以说,季康子间接地成全了孔夫子作为圣人的大业.哀公十二年,季康子[田赋],改革税赋,进一步加速礼崩乐坏的过程,这当然是孔子不愿意看到的.哀公十六年(479),孔子.鲁定公时期,孔子是与三桓斗争的重要权臣,但是结果还是被强大的三桓打败,哀公二十七年,469,季康子.当年(469),季康子,叔孙文子,孟武伯跟随哀公后庸(越王勾践)平阳开会,季康子会中讨论问题谈到子贡.季康子:假如现在子贡在这里,我们根本不会与蛮夷(越国)订这种盟约.孟武伯:的确不错,那为什么不叫子贡? 季康子:我马上就叫子贡;孙叔文子:即使是到了以后,也不要忘记今天的说话(故此左氏春秋亦有记载此事也); …同年夏天四月己亥日,季康子.鲁哀公虽然亲自吊唁,然所行的却是低一级不完备的礼节.

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

子贡:卫国人.(贡本字赣),姓端木名赐.孔子弟子,有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于齐.

冉有:522-489鲁人,字子有,(ran),亦称冉有又称有子,孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)有才艺,性谦退,季氏之宰. 11.15

:有决断;何有:何难之有; :通达事理; :多才多能;

Ji Kangzi asked:Is Zhong You capable for politics?

Confucius said:Zhong You is good at decision making, what difficulty would he encounter in politics?

Ji Kangzi asked: Is Ci capable for politics?

Confucius said: Ci possesses good empathy.What difficulty would he encounter in politics?

Ji Kangzi asked: Is Qiu capable for politics?

Confucius said: Qiu is a versatile person. What difficult would he encounter in politics?

6.7季氏使闵子骞为费宰.闵子骞曰:善为我辞焉,如有复我者,则吾必在汶上.

本章记闵子骞之品德.

季孙氏使人召闵子骞为费邑当邑长. 闵子骞说:请代我好好地辞掉吧,如果再来召我,我就避到汶水之上了.

闵子骞:536-487鲁国人,姓闵名损,字子骞.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性孝友,以德行着.少时被后母虐,其亲生二子以絮造衣;子骞则以卢花;父知之欲出后母,子骞曰:母在一子寒,母去三子单.遂止,母亦感悟.

:季氏家邑,传统bi,现在多读fei; :再来召我; 汶上:水之上;

Minister of the Ji family was sent to recruit Minziqian to join the Ji clan and govern its Fei county. Minziqian said:Please kindly convey my humble resignation.Should anyone come again to invite me, I shall then migrate to the far side of the Wen River.

6.8伯牛有疾,子问之,自牖(you,窗也)执其手,:亡之,命矣乎?斯人也,而有斯疾也. 斯人也,而有斯疾也!

本章孔子叹伯牛有德而不得天年.

伯牛病重,老师去慰问,从窗子外握着他的手叹道:这人将要丧失了,这真是命啊! 这样的人为何有这种病! 这样的人为何有这种病!

有疾:染上恶疾; :you,窗也.

伯牛:鲁人,姓冉名耕.字伯牛,以德行着.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).孔子相鲁,以为中都宰.

Boniu was carrying a deadly disease.Confucius went to console him.The master hold tight of his disciple’s hand through a window and cried:He is dying, Atlas! Is it fate?Such a (good)person should have such a (bad)disease!… Such a (good)person should have such a (bad)disease! (leprosy)

6.9:贤哉回也!一箪食(dan;古时竹饭碗),一瓢饮(piao,剖开的葫芦以盛水),在陋巷,人不堪其忧,回也不改其乐,贤哉回也!

本章评颜回能安贫乐道.

…老师说:真正有贤德的,回啊!一小竹器的饭,一瓢的水,住在穷陋狭隘的小巷里,别人受不了这苦,而回啊不改变他那种乐道的精神.

; 陋巷:狭隘的小巷; :胜也,任也;

:521-490颜名回.字子渊,亦谓颜渊.鲁国人.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..敏而好学.问一知十,孔子自认不如.回不迁怒,不贰过,贫居陋巷,一箪食(dan;古时竹饭碗)一瓢饮(piao,剖开的葫芦以盛水),而不改其乐.孔子称其贤.早卒,后世尊为复圣.

一箪食:一竹器的饭; 一瓢dried calabash/gourd ladle:一果壳造的杓载之

Confucius said: Virtuous indeed was Hui!(his daily meal)With a single bamboo container of rice,a single gourd shell of water, live in a lane of poverty,while others could not endure such distress ,Hui however remains optimistic in all.Virtuous indeed,was Hui! 

6.10冉求:非不说()子之道,力不足也.子曰:力不足者,中道而废,今女画.

本章勉人力学,自规废尝试.

冉求:并不是不喜欢老师说为人之道,实在我的力量不够; …老师说:力量不够,走到半途便停顿下来,现在你并非力量不够,而是画地自限,不想前进.

女画:汝自画地以自限.

冉求: 522-489鲁人,字子有,(ran)亦称冉有又称有子,孔子弟子,有才艺,性谦退,季氏之宰.

Ran Qiu said:Its not that I do not like your instructions, its only that I am in lack of strength to accomplish it.

Confucius said:Those who do not have enough strenfth give up half way(is excusable). Now you have restrain yourself without even attempting to start.(is inexcusable)

6.11谓子夏曰:女为君子儒,无为小人儒.

本章戒子夏当为君子的儒者.

…老师对子夏:你当做一个君子的儒者,不要做一个小人的儒者.

:学者之称,具六艺之能,进德修身,从政于世.

小人儒:以儒为谋身之行业.

子夏:507-?姓卜名商,卫国温人,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..子夏继孔子之后,系统性传授儒家经典的第一人.被后世誉为传经鼻祖.他晚年是战国时期的开始,魏国西河一带教学,开创的{西河学派}培育出大批经国治世良材,并成为孔儒支流法家成长的摇篮.子夏的儿子比他早去世.子夏伤心哭了双目失明.子夏倡 学而优则仕.

Confucius admonished Zixia: You should be a scholar with an ambition of a man of virtue. Do not be just an average scholar.

…(Zixia had turned out to be the most erudite disciple)

6.12子游武城,子曰:女得人焉尔乎?…曰:(tan)台灭明,行不由径,非公事,未尝至于偃(yan偃粤读演)之室也.

本章述澹台灭明之贤.

子游做武城宰官,老师问:你得到人才吗? …游答:有叫澹台灭明的,他从不走小道取巧,不为公家事,从没到过我偃的办公室来.

行不由径:/行不走小道(走后门); :子游.

子游:511-?,子游,国人..武城.特习于礼,尤于文学,列位孔门十哲(子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).

武城:邑名; 焉尔乎:(助语辞)表示疑问;

澹台灭明:愎姓澹台灭明子羽愎姓澹台tan粤读谈,不读淡,武城.澹台后亦为孔子弟子.貌陋而有行.尝曰:以貌取人,失之子羽.见史记仲尼弟子传.按索隐云:[家语:子羽有君子之容,而行不胜其貌],今云子羽状貌甚恶,则以子羽形陋也.{家语}相反.

When Ziyou was the governor of Wucheng,Confucius asked him:Have you got good staff?

Ziyou replied:Yes,there is a person called Dantai Mieming,he would not take short cuts(cutting corners/pulling strings). Never would him try to visit me in private. He would come to my house only for an

official business.

6.13:孟之反不伐,奔而殿,将入门,策其马曰:非敢后也,马不进也.

本章言人有功以不自夸为尚.

…老师说:孟之反不夸功.当鲁军败走,他殿后掩护,快入城门,鞭着他的马说:那里敢有意留在后面阻敌,这匹马跑不快啊.

 

孟之反:名侧,鲁国大夫; :自夸其功; :败走; 殿:殿后掩护撤退; 策马:鞭打马;

Confucius said:Menzhifen did not boast himself.He was the last to leave the battle field to hamper the enemy from chasing.When his troops arrived the city gate,he whipped his horse and said:It was not that I dared to stay back,my horse just would not gallop.

6.14:不有祝鮀之佞,而有宋朝之美,難乎免於今之世矣.

本章孔子叹哀世人好谀媚,以口才为尚.

…老师说:一个人如果没有像祝鮀的口才,有像宋朝的美色,在现代里,就难免于祸害了.

祝鮀:子鱼,左传称祝佗,卫大夫,官大祝.有口才

宋朝:宋公子,貌美而淫.出奔于卫.

Confucius said:If a person do not have the eloquence of Zhu Tuo,instead only have the beauty of Song Zhao,it would be difficult for him to keep himself out of trouble.

6.15:谁能出不由户?何莫由斯道也?

本章孔子叹人多不知为人之道.

…老师说:谁人出不经过大门? 何人不去依着人之所以为人之道去行呢?

斯道:这人的所以为人之道.

Confucius said: Who would leave a house and not going through a door?(as knowing its the proper way).Therefore why not going through the life  via a proper way?

6.16:質勝文則野,文勝質則史,文質彬彬,然後君子.

6.16:质胜文则野,文胜质则史,文质彬彬,然后君子.

本章言君子文质相称.

…老师说:本质朴实胜过才华,则是乡间的老实人.才华胜过本质,则是公衙中的文书官吏:本质和才华均匀相称,然后才称得是个君子.

:朴质也; :才华也; :鄙陋不中于礼也;

:官府中掌文书者.

Confucius said: Natural and unadorned with little literary talent begets a temperament of naive and rash.Or it will develop a flamboyant character if vice versa.Keeping the two in balance creates a person of virtue. 

6.17:人之生也直; 罔之生也幸而免.

本章孔子言直道,为人生之坦途.

…老师说:人之生于世,本应依直道而行,那些邪曲不正直的人也一样地生活在世,只不过侥幸一时免于祸害罢了.

: 直道,正直之义; :邪曲诬罔也.

Confucius said: Life is viable when its straight and honest. A crooked person may also live escapingly from disasters only by luck.

6.18:知之者,不如好知者, 好知者不如乐知者.

本章孔子言学道之浅深境界上之不同.

…老师说:知道此道的不如喜好此道的. 喜好此道的不如沈浸躭乐此道的.

知之:认识此道; 好之:喜好此道; 乐之:躭乐此道中之真味也.

Confucius said:Those who willing to learn are not as good as those who are fond of learning.Yet,those who find happiness in learning are the best learners of all.

6.19:中人以上,可以语上也.中人以下,不可以语上也.

本章明教人当以对象之学养深浅而善导之.

…老师说:中等资质以上的人,可以对他说高深的道理. 中等资质以下的人, 不可以对他讲高深的道理.

:告之也.

Confucius said:One may pursue advance discussion with those who are are above average. Do not pursue advance discussion with those who are below average.

6.20樊迟问知,:务民之义,敬鬼神而远之,可谓知矣; …问仁, :仁者,先难而后获,可谓仁矣.

本章明知和仁的实用.

樊迟问知识;…老师说:努力于人之所应当做的事,敬拜鬼神,不可以迷惑,可算是智了.又问仁的道理. 老师说:一个仁者,能先克服一切困难,在人之前, 要论到报酬,却远居人后,可算是仁了.

樊迟:515-?樊须,字子迟,故亦作樊迟.鲁人,孔子弟子,仕于季氏.

务民之义: 努力于人之所当为的事; 先难而后获:先尽力克服一切困难,然后才可得到报酬.

Fan Chi asked how to become wise.

Confucius said: Devote yourself to fulfil all your duties, respect all gods but keep aloof from them(not to be superstitious).This may call wise.

Fan Chi asked how to become virtuous.

Confucius said:A man of virtue would exert first and ask for reward afterward.This may call virtue

6.21:知者乐(yao),仁者乐(yao).知者动,仁者静;知者乐,仁者寿.

本章说明仁知不同的心境,情趣,感受.

…老师说:智者喜好水,仁者喜好山.智者性好动,仁者性好静,智者于事理通达,心中常乐.仁者安于仁义之道,自恬澹康健而永年.

乐水:yao,喜好,智者通达事理如水之流行.故乐于水; 乐山:( yao)仁者安于仁义,如山岳之厚重不可移转.

Confucius said:Intellectuals are fond of water(sea);benevolent people are fond of mountain.The Intellects are active. Benevolent people are tranquil. The Intellects are optimistic.Benevolent people have longevity.

6.22:齐一变,至于鲁.鲁一变,至于道.

本章孔子作齐鲁比较.

…老师说:国若一变而修明礼教,可达到鲁国一样.鲁国若一变它的取政治,可达行王道之境界了.

:强而行霸道; :鲁重礼教之邦.

Confucius said:Should Qi once reform,it could then match up with Lu. Should Lu once reform, it would match up with the path of virtue.

6.23:觚不觚(gu,行礼用的酒器),觚哉! 觚哉!

本章言名与实应相合.

…老师说:觚已不像觚的样子,怎样称之为觚呢?

:gu,行礼用的酒器.上圆下方.取名觚以寡少之义也.戒人贪饮也.时人沈湎于酒.持觚而饮,忘其寡少之义,时人更破觚为圆,仍称之觚,犹如君不君,臣不臣之风气也.

Confucius said:A Gu is not like a Gu anymore.Oh Gu,how could it still be called a Gu? Oh Gu,all so pity!

…(Gu:wine Bessel exclusive for  official ceremonies.A sardonic similie Confucius made on the vassals allegorizing their improper representations to the Zhou dynasty) 

6.24宰我问曰:仁者虽告之曰[井有仁焉],其从之也? …子曰:何为其然也?君子可逝也,不可陷也,可欺也,不可罔也.

本章言仁者非愚必有智.不昧于事理.

宰我: 一个有仁德之人,假使有人告诉他井里有个好人掉下去了,他是不是也跟着跳下去救人呢? …老师说:为什么要这样做呢?君子可以去救,但不会下井去救人,也将陷入井中,君子人可以欺骗他,但不会受不合事理蒙蔽的.

宰我:宰名予,字子我,也称宰我,鲁国人.宰予口齿伶俐,能说善辩,被列为孔门四科十哲(言语科)之一.孔子常派遣他出使各国,如“使于齐”,“使于楚”等.宰予遇事有自己的主见.

:往也; 不可陷:不可使己亦陷溺于井中; :眛于事理.

Zaiwo asked:If A man of virtue were told another man of virtue fell into a well,would he jump in to save him?

Confucius said:Why would he do so? (go into the well). He would good to seek help but would not put himself into predicament.One can tell lies to a man of virture, but can never make a fool out of him.

6.25:君子博学于文,约之于礼,亦可以弗畔矣夫!

本章明君子博文约礼以践道.

…老师说:君子广博去研究文章典籍,以礼来约束自己一切言行,就可以不背离于正道了.

A person with massive erudition, and could humbly restrain his/her behaviour accordingly  to rites,how could he/she be diverged from the path of virtue?

6.26南子.子路不说(),夫子矢之曰:予所否者,天厌之! 天厌之!

此章明孔子对任何人接谈,必以礼.

…老师要前往见南子,子路为此心中很不愉快.老师发誓道:我如有不合礼的,天会厌弃我! 天会厌弃我!

南子:卫灵公之夫人.行为不检以昭著.

:誓也; :谓不合于礼,不由于道也; 天厌之:言上天将厌弃于我.

Confucius went to visit Nanzi.Zilu was unhappy of it.(as Nanzi was a notorious adulteress)

Confucius swore vigorously: Should I have done amiss,Heaven would detest me, Heaven would detest me

6.27:中庸之为德也.其至矣乎?民鲜久矣!

本章言人很少有中庸之德了.

…老师说:中庸这种美德,可算是道理中最高的了.一般人很少有这种修养已经很久了.

中庸:谓不偏,不倚,无太过,无不及.

Confucius said: The merit of walking the Middle path should be considered as the highest standard of Moral.Its been rare for long to see any such kind of a person (walking the middle path).

6.28 子贡:如有博施于民,而能济众,何如?可谓仁乎? …子曰:何事于仁?必也圣乎! 尧舜其犹病诸?夫仁者,己欲立而立人,己欲达而达人,能近取譬,可谓仁之方也已!

本章明行仁之途径.

子贡:如有人能博施恩惠于人,又能济助大众,这人怎样?可算是仁者了吧? …老师说:这那里是仁的事? 这必定是圣人了.就是尧舜还感到做的不足呢!所谓仁啊!己身想有所成立,亦想别人也有所成立.己身想通达于道,也想别人通达于道.能用就近切身的事情,去推想他人,这可算是行仁的方向了.[]

子贡:卫国人.(贡本作赣),姓端木名赐.孔子弟子,有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于齐.

博施:广施恩惠; 济众:普遍救济大众; :对所做的而感不足于心;

Zigong asked: Should there be a person who could extensively confer benefits on people,and assist all as well, what would you say of him? May call that person perfect virtue?

Confucius said: Thats a person beyond the perfect virtue! That person must be a Saint! Even Yao and Shun would find it hard to accomplish.

A person of perfect virtue would desire to sustain him/her self would sustain others too, develop him/her self would develop others too.able to empathize reciprocity.This is the direction for the path of perfect virtue!

…A man of humanity,wishing to establish himself,also establishes others. The ability to take as analogy what is near at hand can be called the method of humanity.

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