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里仁 第四篇  

2011-08-11 21:38:30|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译里仁 第四篇 共二十六章

 

里仁 第四篇 共二十六章

 

4.1 :里仁为美,择不处仁,焉得知.

本章言居必选择与仁者相处.

师说:乡里中以有仁者为美盛之事,若选择居所,不处与有仁风之地,怎能算是明智呢?

里仁:乡里中之仁者.

Confucius said: Should it be ideal to live amidst a virtuous village, how could it be wise to choose other kinds of neighbourhood?

4.2:不仁者,不可以久处约,不可以长处乐.仁者安仁,知者利仁.

本章言人要以仁为本.

师说:一个不仁的人,不能长久处在穷困之中.也不能长久处在安乐之中.一个仁者,心自安仁道而行.智者,知道行仁有利,也向仁道而行.

:困穷也. 安仁:此心自安于仁; 知者利仁:智者心知仁之利故行之.

Confucius said: Those who are not virtuous,cannot live in a duration of restraint, neither can they live freely with enjoyments(without dissipating). A virtuous person is satisfied in his/her virtuous beliefs. A wise person knows the advantages of being virtuous.

4.3:唯仁者,能好人,能悪人.

本章言仁者的好恶不出自私心.

师说:只有一个有仁德的人,见人善才心有喜爱.见人不善才会心生厌恶.

Confucius said: only those who are genuinely virtuous can express their love as well as hatred to others.

4.4:苟志于仁矣,无悪也.

本章言一个人如果以仁存心,心无为恶的事了.

师说:个人诚能以仁存心,立志为仁,必无为恶的事发生了.

:诚然.

Confucius said: With an ambition to persevere with virtuous beliefs, there will be no practice of wickedness.

4.5 :富与贵,是人之所欲也.不以其道得之,不处也.贫与贱,是人知所悪也,不以其道得之,不去也.君子去仁,恶乎成名?君子无终食之间违仁;造次必于是,巅沛必于是.

本章论君子以仁存心;不因富贵贫贱去仁,不因造次颠沛而违仁.

师说:富贵是人所喜爱.不以正当方法取得,不居此富贵之中.贫贱是人所厌恶,如没有正当的方法,亦不去此贫贱.君子如违离了仁道,怎能称得上君子之名呢?一个君子,没有一顿饭时间有遗仁道.虽在怱忙的时候,还是这样以仁存心.虽在流离困阨之间,还是这样以仁存心.

终食之间:一餐饭时间; 造次:怱忙之时; 颠沛:流离困阸之时.

Confucius said: Fortune and fame are what we desire.If such cannot be acquired via a proper way, they should gain not. Poverty and desolation are what we dislike.If they can not be resolved in a proper way,they should avoid not. If a person of virtue forsake his/her virtuous beliefs, its difficult for he/she to bear the name of a person of virtue.

A person of virtue must not even for a time of single meal,act contrary to virtue. As well as in moments of haste, so as notwithstanding In periods of miseries.

 4.6 :我未见好仁者恶不仁者.好仁者,无以尚之; 恶不仁者,其为仁矣,不使不仁者加乎其身,有能一日用其力于仁矣乎?我未见力不足者;盖有之矣,我未之见也.

本章孔子叹世人不知致力行仁.

老师说:我没见到一个喜爱仁道,厌悪不仁的人.眞爱仁道的人,会觉得世上没有可喜爱的事加乎其上.厌恶不仁的人,不会使不仁之事,加在他的身上.眞有人会有过这么一天,肯努力去行仁吗?我没见过说他行仁的力量不够,或许有这种人,可是我没见过啊!

:,超越

[A] Confucius said: I have not seen an advocate of virtue hates those who are behaving contrary.

An advocate of virtue feels an unsurpassable excellence. Having a distaste to those not virtuous is intrinsically virtue itself,lest be involved personally with vicious matters.

Has anyone for one single day endeavour to apply their strength to their utmost virtue? I have not seen a case of insufficient strength.Should there be one,I have yet to see it.

[B] Confucius said(2) I have not seen an advocate of virtue or those who hate those who are behaving contrarily had any single day applied their efforts to the utmost…

4.7 :人之过也,各于其党;观过,斯知仁矣!

本章言可从观察人之过而知仁与不仁.

老师说:人的过失,因人而有类别.从观察他的过失,便知此人是仁或不仁.

:类别.

Confucius said:Faults of individuals are traits of the clique in which they belong. Observing their faults, thus know whether or not the clique is virtuous.

4.8 :朝闻道,夕死可矣.

本章言闻道之重要.

老师说:早上如果能听到人之所以为人之道,就是晚上死了也可以(无憾于心).

闻道:闻知事物当然之理.人之所以为人之道.

Confucius said: Should enlightenment be achieved at dawn, could then die with no chagrin at dusk.

4.9 :士志于道,而耻悪衣悪食者,未足与议也.

本章言一心向道,何暇顾及衣食之美悪.

老师说:一个读书修身的人,心在向道,又以衣食不美为耻,这种人已不直相议论道了.

:读书修身之人

Confucius said: A scholar whose ambition is to become virtuous, whereas feeling shameful of wearing poor clothings and serving cheap foods,is not an ideal person to discuss anything with.

4.10 :君子之于天下也,无适(),无莫也,义之与比().

本章言君子一切言行,唯议是从.

老师说:君子对天下一切的事,不以主观的一定要如此,或一定不如此,总在是否合乎义,唯义是从.(参阅 9.4绝四: 毋意,毋必,毋固,毋我.)

:本章; :否定义;不可如此做.

Confucius said: A virtuous person when dealing with public affairs (is not opinionated),would set hisher mind neither for anything nor against anything.Yet determine it by comparison. 

4.11 :君子怀德,小人怀土.君子怀刑,小人怀恩.

本章分别君子与小人的心志.

老师说:君子所思念的在道德的修养.小人则思念拥着一份恒产是以使生活安乐.君子常思念着一切言行有否触及刑罚.小人常思念着别人给予恩惠.

Confucius said: A virtuous person concerns constantly on keeping proper behavings.Hoi Polloi care about gaining their properties(wealth). A virtuous person reminding constantly to abide by laws, Hoi Polloi concern only for their social benefits.

4.12 :放于利而行,多怨.

本章戒人不可纵心去谋利,而积怨.

老师说:一个人不可放纵心意去谋利.必会惹来很多的怨恨.

Confucius said: Should it aim only to gain more profits, would gain even more complaints.

4.13 :能以让为国乎?何有? 不能以礼让为国,如礼何?

本章言能礼让才能治国.

老师说:若能用礼让之德来治国,那还有什么困难?如不能用礼让来治国,那礼有何作用呢?

Confucius said: If a country is governed by a complaisant ruler,what sort of problem he/she can not solve? If a ruler can not run the country with complaisance, what is that usage of rites for?

4.14 :不患无位,患所以立.不患莫己知,求为可知也.

本章言君子一切求诸己.

老师说:不应忧虑得不到职位,应忧虑的是如果在位有没有从事这职位上的品德和才能.不要忧虑人不知道自己,应力求自己有什么品德才能足可使人称道的.

:职位; :立于其位之品德才能.

Confucius said: Do not worry of being not assigned for a position. Just concern whether you are qualify for that position. Chagrin not as being unheeded. Just strive to become worthwhile for attention.

4.15 :!吾道一与贯之. 曾子:;…,门人问曰:何谓也?曾子:夫子之道,忠恕而已矣.

本章曾参[忠恕]解释孔子道之[一贯]

老师说:!我所说的道,所指虽繁多,按其理实事一连贯的;…曾子应道:是啊!…老师出去以后,其它的弟子们:老师说的是什么意思?…曾子:师说的道就是忠恕罢了.(参阅15.23子贡:有一言而可以终身行之者乎? :其恕乎!己所不欲,勿施于人.)

道一与贯:道虽千端万绪,皆可会通而归于[一贯]

:曾子

…for social participation, Confucius required to be loyal to himselfand considerate of others.As Confucius taught仲弓{12.2己所不欲,勿施于人.Do not do unto others what you would not want others to do unto you. This is the Confucius’golden rule 15.23

Confucius said: Shan,the intrinsical principal of my doctrine is prevailing unique.

Disciple Shan replied: Acknowledge!

Confucius left the class, other disciples asked Shan: What is the connotation?

Shan said: Our master reminds us, the principal of his doctrine is to be persistent abiding to  its golden rule:Loyalty and Reciprocity.

4.16 :君子喻于义.小人喻于利.

本章论君子与小人,在议和利上的不同

老师说:君子只晓知的在义,小人只晓知的在利.

:晓知义

Confucius said: Virtuous people are conversant with their duties.Hoi Polloi are conversant only with making their gains.

4.17 :见贤思齐焉,见不贤而内自省也.

本章教进德修身之道.

老师说:看到贤德的人,想自己也要琢磨品德一样.看到不贤的人,就自己反过来省察己身.有无像他的不善行为.

思齐:思与贤者看齐(一样).

Confucius said:When seeing persons of virtue,we think of equalling them.When seeing a vicious person, we should introspect worryingly if we are in anyway similar.

4.18 :事父母几谏,见志不从,又敬不违,劳而不怨,

本章说事奉父母当微言谏劝尽孝之道.

老师说:事奉父母应当柔声微婉去劝说.若父母不听,达不到你所希望的,还是要恭恭敬敬的不可违拗他们的意思.虽然为此忧心操劳,亦不可有怨恨之意.

几谏:柔声微言相劝.

联想:孝顺者,主在字也.

Confucius said: when euphemising repeatedly a piece of advice to parent and yet were obstinately declined to accept,you should remain respectful although with great worries.There should have no chagrin in your strenuous effort.

4.19 :父母在,不远游,游必有方.

本章言孝子不应轻离父母.不可不明去处.

老师说:父母在时,不作远行.如非得已要远行,应该告知父母有一定的方向.

Confucius said: While parents are alive, children may not travel far away from home.Should it be a must to travel afar, the journey must have a fixed destination.

4.20 :三年无改于父之道,可谓孝矣.

本章重出,已见学而篇1.11

Confucius said: Three years making no changes,of his beloved father’s code of conduct, that can be called filial piety.

4.21 :父母之年,不可不知也.一则以喜,一则以惧.

本章言孝心应对父母在生之年存喜惧.

老师说:父母的年龄,不可不常记在心.一方面喜父母寿考康疆,一方面又惧父母衰老将至.来日无多.

:喜其寿考康疆[寿考long life]; :惧其来日无多.

Confucius said: The years of parents must not be ignored for two purposes.One for joy(when they are healthy), another for fear(as they grow old and weak).

4.22 :古者言之不出,耻躬之不逮也.

本章言人言不轻出,行不逮言为耻.

老师说:古人话不轻易出口,怕自身行为上做不到为耻.

言之不出:不妄言;:;:(力所不逮)

Confucius said: Our ancestors seldom made speeches lest be shameful when their actions were unable to  match them. 

4.23 :以约失之者,鲜矣.

本章论约之可

老师说:因为守着俭约,而有了差失的,太少了.

:收敛,不放纵,不浪费,谨言慎行.

Confucius said: to fail because of cautious restraint is seldom.

4.24 :君子欲讷于言(ne粤读吶,不读纳),而敏于行.

本章说言要谨慎迟缓一些,行则要勤快.

老师说:一个君子,(批评别人的)说话必会谨慎些.行动必会勤快些.

:slow of speech;to stammer as being cautious about speaking.

Confucius said: A person of virtue is often slow to speak(comment) but fast to act.

4.25 :德不孤,必有邻.

本章论德之成效

老师说:有德之人,不会孤立,必会有人来亲近他的.

:孤独寡友; :亲近相从;

Confucius said:Virtue could never become lonely, who ever practices it would always have fervent supporter.

4.26 子游:事君(读促),斯辱矣;朋友数(读促),斯疏矣.

本章子游说事君交友之道.

子游:事君谏劝不可太过繁琐,会遭侮辱.交朋友不可太多的规劝,会被疏远.

(读促):频繁;:疏远.

子游: 511-?,子游,国人..武城.特习于礼,尤于文学,列位孔门十哲(子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).参阅2.7子游问孝.:今之孝者是谓能养.至于犬马,皆能有养.不敬何以别乎?

Ziyou said: Remontrate the master frequently will lead to disgrace. As with friends, you will be abandoned.

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