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学而 第一篇  

2011-08-12 12:35:05|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译学而 第一篇 共十六章

 

学而 第一篇 共十六章

 

1.1 :学而时习之,不亦(),有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎.人不知而不愠不亦君子乎.

本章孔子教学习的态度,做人之道.要不停实践.

老师说:学做人之道,时常能实习到做人之正道,心中不是很喜悦吗?有朋友从远方来探望(互相论道),不是觉得很快乐吗?别人不知我有知识,我心中一点含怒之意也没有,这不是已成为有道德的人了么?(参阅1.16…不患人之不己知)

:学生称老师,孔子之简称也; :yue曰粤读若,说也; :这里通悦,欣喜之义; :yun愠粤读揾,含怒之义; 君子:有德行之人. :hu乎粤读扶,这是反问不是吗?”的意思.

异译(1): …学会的知识,能挥发于其事业中,不是一件开心的事吗?

有老友海外到访,亦不外乎以歌肴招待吧. 乐亦可读[].

异译(2):学而时习之,(求学时不停的练习),不亦说乎.(不是亦要与同自己相等水平的人[]?)…这里的说不读悦了.

Confucius said: Is it not pleasant that one can practise on one who has learnt? Is it not delightful to have friends visiting from afar? Is one not a person of lofty virtue,who feels no annoyance thoughno one understands him/her? 

1.2有子:其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者鲜矣(xian鲜粤读癣).不好犯上而好作乱者,未之有也.君子务本,本立而道生;孝弟也者,其为仁之本与.

本章论行仁当以孝悌为本

有子:如有一人,他能孝顺父母,尊敬兄长,而爱冒犯上师的,那一定是很少的.不爱冒犯上师的,而喜作乱的,就不会有了.有道的君子之人专心致力于根本,根本确立了,道自然会生出来了.孝悌是为人的根本啊!有子:,505518-国人,子有,后被尊称为有子.孔子晚年弟子.

有子勤奋好学,能较全面深刻地理解孔子的学说.孔门十哲之一.十哲指的是孔子门下最优秀的十位学生(子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)的合称.{论语}中一般称孔子的学生为X”,只有曾参有若两人被尊称曾子,有子.故有人据此推断{论语}是由这两位孔子学生的学生所编纂的.{论语}开篇四章,,已各占一章矣!

孝弟:善事父母曰孝,善事兄长曰弟; 好犯上者鲜矣:,在上位者,背叛也,:xian鲜粤读癣,少也; 作乱:违理反常之事; 务本:致力于根本之事; :人道也,人在世上一切当行之理也;

Youzi said: Seldom of those being filial and fraternal were fond of offending their superiors. Those who dislike offending their superiors have never been fond of stirring up confusion. A person of honour dedicates to what is fundamental. That being established, all doctrinces would be habituated a natural way of track. Filial piety and fraternal submission, are they not radical of all benevolent means?   

1.3 :巧言令色,鲜矣仁.

本章言仁者,当正言正色.

老师说:说讨好话,装出讨喜欢的脸色,这种人的仁德是很少的.

巧言:说好听的话; 令色:装出讨喜欢的脸色; :xian鲜粤读癣,少也;

Confucius said: shrewd words of praising, obsequious appearance are seldom associated with true virtue.

1.4 曾子:吾日三省吾身:为人谋而不忠乎 与朋友交而不信乎 传不习乎

本章记曾子反己省察.进德的工夫.

曾子:我每天以三件事反省自己,替人做事,有不尽心力的吗? 与朋友交往,有不够信实的吗? 师所传之道,再传之于人,有未能温习成熟了吗?

三省吾身:xing粤读醒;检查,每日以三件事反省自己; :尽己之力谓忠, :实之谓信; :受之于师; :熟习于己;

联想:孟子:人之患,在好为人师乐意好分享知识乃人类文明进步之一大动力.不吝啬才是美德.患之症结不在好为人师,为师者斯传不习乎也!

曾子: 子舆505-436武城,曾点之子.父子皆为孔子弟子.事亲至孝.悟圣道一贯之旨.以其学传子思(孔子孙儿),后世称为宗圣.作曾子十八篇.孔子孙儿孔伋之师也,子思之儒.孔伋曾子孝道矣.

Zengzi said: my daily introspection on three aspects repeatedly are have I been faithful when transacting business for others? Have I been sincere when communicating with friends? Have I reviewed attentively what my teacher impart to me before I relate it to my student?

1.5 : 道千乘之国,敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时.

领导千乘(兵车),用民于其空闲之时.

本章论治理大国之要.

老师说:治理一个千乘兵车的大国,当谨慎从事,而取信于民.要节省费用,爱护人民,要使用人民的力量(徭役),当在农家空闲的时候.

:同导,,治理也; 千乘之国:春秋时期(公元前722-481),能出兵车千辆的称为大国; 使民以时:,农人闲空之时.徭役:古时统治者强廹人民承担的无偿劳动.

Confucius said: To lead a country of 1 thousand chariots (a big country),there must be reverent attention to business, with sincerity and thrifty expenditure, love for their people and recruit their labouring only at the proper seasons.

1.6 : 弟子入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,泛爱众,而亲仁,行有余力,则以学文.

本章言学问以道德为重,有余力才学文.

老师说:弟子们,在家要孝顺父母,在外当尊敬长者和上师.言行要谨慎信实.普遍地去爱大众.亲近有德之人,像这样的修养自己,如有多余的精神,就去研究诗书六艺之文.

泛爱众:泛即泛也,普遍(没有私心)地以爱心对人; :指诗书六艺之文;

Confucius said: A youth, when at home,should be filial,when abroad,respectful to elders,be earnest and truthful. One should overflow in love to all and cultivate friendship of the good.when one has time and opportunity,after the performance of these things, then one would engage to study other doctrines.

1.7 子夏:贤贤易色,事父母能竭其力,事君能致其身,与朋友交言而有信:虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣.

本章记子夏教人为学的道理.

子夏:一个人如能重视妻的德而不重视她的美色,奉敬父母,能竭尽自己的力量.事奉君上,能献身于职守,和朋友交往,说话要有信用.这样的人,虽然说并没有去学习修养什么道德,我一定说他已有了道德修养了.

贤贤易色:上贤字动词,下贤字名词.以尊重人之贤德以替代其外表之仪色; 致其身:献其身于职守.

子夏:507-?姓,,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子夏是继孔子之后,系统性传授儒家经典的第一人.被后世誉为传经鼻祖.他晚年是战国时期开始,魏国西河一带教学,开创的{西河学派}培育了大批经国治世良材,并成为孔儒支流的{法家}成长的摇篮.

Zixia said: If one withdraws mind from the love of apparent beauty and applies it as sincerely to the love of the (inner) virtuous; if serving parents with utmost strength,serving country with devotion of even with life itself,interact with friends with sincere intercourse,such person although has not learnt,I will certainly say that he/she has.

1.8 :君子不重则不威,学则不固,主忠信,无友不如己者,过则勿惮改.(dan)

本章孔子教人做君子.学君子之道.有过则不要畏难而不.

老师说:一个人不庄重,就失去尊严了.他所修养的道德,也就不能坚固不移了.君子要以忠信为主,不要去结交不如自己的人,有过,不要怕难改.

:庄重; :尊严; :dan但畏难畏惧,:肆无忌惮;

Confucius said:If the scholar be not grave,such person will not call forth any veneration. His/her learning would not be valid.Hold faithfulness and sincerity as primary principles. Have no friends not equal to yourself. When you have faults do not fear it being too difficult to be corrected.

1.9 曾子: 慎终追远,民德归厚矣

慎终先人之丧能守礼尽哀. 追远祭祀祖先能尽其追思.皆可转移民风趋向

曾子:子舆505-436武城,曾点之子.父子皆为孔子弟子.事亲至孝.悟圣道一贯之旨.以其学传子思(孔子孙儿),后世称为宗圣.作曾子十八篇.孔子孙儿孔伋之师也,子思之儒.孔伋曾子孝道矣.

Zengzi said: Let there be a meticulous rites for parental funerals, and let ceneromies be followed even long gone, then the virtue of people will recover their original excellence.

1.10 子禽问于子贡:夫子至于是邦也,必闻其政, 求之与?抑与之与?子贡曰:夫子温,,,,.以得之;夫子之求之也,其诸.异乎人之求之与?

本章言孔子周游列国,皆因其有德,而得与闻国政.

子禽子贡:我们老师每到一个国家,就要参与那个国家的政事,是他求来的还是别人主动告诉他的呢?…子贡:老师温和,善良,恭敬,节俭,谦让,才获得这种待遇.他这种求得的方法,同于别人求得之方法吧.

必闻其政:预闻其国之政事; :和厚; :善良; :恭敬; :节约; :谦逊; 其诸:语助词; 夫子:古代一种敬称.凡做过大夫级官的人就可被称为夫子; 孔子做过鲁国司冦,故称孔子夫子也;

子禽:511-430子元,一字子禽,又名原亢,小孔子40.(安徽蒙城县).大夫陈子车之弟.孔子弟子,77位弟子中名列第68.曾做过单父(山东县南).陈亢为宰时,施德政于民,颇受后人好评.其兄死(大夫),反对家人殉葬.

子贡:端木赐卫国人.(贡本作赣),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子贡有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于.

Ziqin asked Zigong:When our master arrives any country,he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information or is it given to him?

Zigong said: Our master is benign,upright, courteous, temperate, complaisant and thus he gets his information His mode of asking information – is it not different from that of other people?

1.11 :父在观其志,父没观其行.三年无改于父之道,可谓孝矣

本章言为人子者一种孝行.

老师说:父亲在世,一切由父作主.只观察他的志向.父亲死后,子承父志,当观察他的所行.在丧三年之内,都没改变父亲生前的行政方法,这可以算是孝子了.

观其志:父在世,子不得自专,要观父亲的志向,父业子承; 观其行:父没,子乃主事,故观察其所行事方法;

Confucius said: When father is alive,follow the direction of his will,when father is dead,maintain the conduct of his ambition.If for three years making no changes, that can be called filial piety.

1.12 有子:礼之用,和为贵,先王之道,斯为美,小大由之;有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也.

本章言人对礼之运用,要调和融洽为尚.

有子:礼的使用,要以调和融洽为贵.古代圣王之道,他的美处就在此;小事大事都得由此而行.但也有行不通的.如只知道应该用和,就一意地用和,而不用礼来限制,也不可以这样地去.

:调和融洽.和没礼的制度是不可行的,

有子: ,505518-国人,子有,后被尊称为有子.孔子晚年弟子. 有子勤奋好学,能较全面深刻地理解孔子的学说.孔门十哲之一.十哲指的是孔子门下最优秀的十位学生(子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)的合称.{论语}中一般称孔子的学生为X”,只有曾参有若两人被尊称曾子,有子.故有人据此推断{论语}是由这两位孔子学生的学生所编纂的.{论语}开篇四章,,已各占一章矣!

Youzi said: The usage of rites,Equanimity is the essence. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, it (equinamity) is excellent quality,and in things small and big we follow them.Yet it is not to be observed in all cases.If one,knowing how such equanimity is essence,manifests it,without regulating it by the rites,this likewise is not to be done. 

1.13 有子:信近于义,言可复也.恭近于礼,远耻辱也.因不失其亲,亦可宗也.

本章言信与恭之实践.信要合乎道理适宜.恭敬必先合乎礼.才可远离耻辱.

有子:和人有约信,必先要合乎道理适宜.才可践守.对人恭敬,先要合乎礼,才可远离于耻辱.遇到有可亲近的人,必先选择确实值得可以亲近的方面,那就以他这方面为宗主敬仰罢.

:约信; :事之得宜;

有子:,505518-国人,子有,后被尊称为有子.孔子晚年弟子. 有子勤奋好学,能较全面深刻地理解孔子的学说.孔门十哲之一.十哲指的是孔子门下最优秀的十位学生(子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)的合称.{论语}中一般称孔子的学生为X”,只有曾参有若两人被尊称曾子,有子.故有人据此推断{论语}是由这两位孔子学生的学生所编纂的.{论语}开篇四章,,已各占一章矣!

Youzi said:Agreements are based on righteous duty. What is spoken can then be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a person learns are proper persons to be intimate with, one can make them his/her guides and masters.

1.14:君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏于事而慎于言,就有道而正焉;可谓好学也已.

本章评好学之事情.

老师说:有道的君子不求丰足的饮食.居住不求安适.勤敏的做事,谨慎地说话.亲近有道德的人,请纠正他不正之处,这样可算是一位好学的人了.

无求饱:无暇顾及安饱; :勤敏;

:谨慎; 就有道:亲近有道德的人;

:纠正错处.

Confucius said: A person who aims to become complete virtue,does not in his food seek to gratify his appetite.Does not seek in his dwelling place with appliances of comfort. That person is earnest in what he/she is doing, careful in making speeches,that person frequents the company of friends of which principle that he/she may be rectified.- such a person may be said indeed to have loved to learn.

1.15 子贡:贫而无谄(chan前险,义巴结奉承),富而无骄,何如?… :可也! 未若贫而乐,富而好礼者也;…子贡:诗云:如切如磋,如琢如磨,其斯之谓与?…:,始可与言诗已矣! 告诸往而知来者.

本章孔子子贡.

子贡:穷人能对人不巴结奉承,富能对人不傲慢,这样如何呢? …老师说:这算是可以了,但不如贫而乐,富而守礼; …子贡:诗经上说像治玉一样,不断地切磋琢磨,精益求精不就是这个意思么?…老师说:!而悟,像这样可以跟你谈诗了.告知你这一些,你就能知道那一些的道理来.

:献媚讨好于人; :傲慢于人; :{诗经}; 切磋琢磨:修身克己之功;

子贡:国人.(本字),端木.孔子弟子,有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.,.尝说出师敌以存.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于.

Zigong said: What would you pronounce concerning the poor person who yet does not flatter,and the rich person who is not proud?

Confucius replied: They are not bad.But not as good as those though poor yet cheerful,though rich yet love the rites.

Zigong replied: it is said in the Book of Odes – As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish; the meaning is the same, I apprehend ,as that which you have just expressed.

Confucius said: Now, I can begin to discuss the Odes with you. I have told you that point,which you came to apprehend.

1.16 :不患人之不己知,患不知人也.

本章言人应当忧虑不知辨别人的好坏.

老师说:不要去忧虑别人不知道自己,自己应当忧虑的是,不知道别人.

:忧虑也;

Confucius said: I will not be offended at others not knowing me. I am only worried that I am not able to know others.

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