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八佾 第三篇  

2011-08-12 11:26:02|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译八佾 第三篇 共二十六章

 

八佾 第三篇 共二十六章

 

yi粤读日,古代舞蹈,一行八人为一佾.

3.1 孔子季氏:八佾舞于庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?

本章评季氏僭用天子之礼乐.

孔子评论季氏用八佾的礼乐,在他的家庙庭中.这样的事,如可以容忍,还有什么事不可容忍的呢?

八佾:天子之舞蹈,八人八行共六十四人之舞蹈.

诸侯六佾;大夫四佾;士二佾.

季氏:大夫季孙氏;

Confucius made comments on the Ji family,said: Such eight rows of eight people performance in his own court,if such ritual violation is tolerable, what else (ritual violation)is intolerable?

3.2三家者以雍彻,:[相维辟公,天子穆穆]奚取于三家之堂?

本章指三家大夫:孟孙,叔孙,季孙.皆僭用天子之礼乐.

孔子国三家大夫,家祭撤祭品时,也歌唱{}.老师说:{}诗有两句, ‘四方诸候都来助祭,天子的仪容肃穆诚敬’,{}诗的涵义,那合乎这三宗庙堂上的情形呢?

:颂篇名;彻同撤(古礼祭毕,撤去祭馔);

相维辟公:四方诸侯都来助祭; 奚取于三家之堂?.:合乎三家之堂吗?

The three families of Mengsun, Shusun and Jisun usurped the {Yong ode} during the vessels were being removed from the alter at the conclusion of the sacrifice, Confucius thus commented,(the three families) usurped the phrase which is exclusive for the son of the heaven : ‘ Assising are the princes; the son of heaven looks profound and grave.’; what kind of application can these words has in the hall of the three families?

3.3 :人而不仁,如礼何? 人而不仁, 如乐何?

本章言仁为礼乐之本.

老师说:如果一个人不以仁存心,就是用礼来,对他又能发生什么作用呢? 一个人不以仁存心, 就是用乐来,对他又能发生什么作用呢?

不仁:没有以仁存于心礼乐皆无效用.

Confucius said: For people that are not benevolent,rites and music would have what significance in them?

3.4 林放问礼之本.:大哉问! 礼与其奢也,宁俭,,与其易也,宁戚.

本章论礼之本原.

林放问礼的根本.老师说:你问的题目很大啊!一般的礼仪,与其奢侈,不如节俭些;丧葬仪式,与其办得尽善尽美,不如在心里真正悲哀.

林放:普通一; 礼之本:世人多注意礼之繁文缛节.应不违背礼之本原才对.

:奢侈;:治办之义; :哀伤

Lin Fang asked what nomality is radical for rites.

Confucius said: A profound question indeed! In festive ceremony, it is better be thrifty than extravagant,In mourning ceremony,rather to meticulously concern on subtleties, it is better to have an obvious expression of condolences.

3.5:夷狄之有君,不如诸夏之亡也.

本章论时之乱,君臣之礼已废.

老师说:蛮夷之人,尚知有君长,不像中国诸侯之国内,僭乱犯上,君臣之礼了.

夷狄:蛮夷之邦. 诸夏:中国各诸侯之国(vassal kingdoms).有君:尚知有君长.

Confucius said: The uncivilized tribes of the east and north respect their princes; unlike our civilized vassal-kingdoms whom ignore theirs.

3.6季氏旅于泰山,冉有(ran):女弗能救与?…对曰:不能:呜呼!曾谓泰山不如林放?(参阅3.4)

本章斥季氏非礼祭于泰山

季氏去祭泰山,老师对冉有:你不能纠正这事么? …冉有答道:我不能; …老师叹道:!难道泰山之神不如林放? (泰山神必不受此非礼之谄祭也)

女弗能救与:(女同汝)你不能纠正此事么?

难道泰山之神会不如林放?(言泰山必不受此非礼之谄祭)

:祭名.古者,天子祭泰山.季之旅,僭天子之礼也.

冉求:522-489,子有,亦称冉有又称有子,孔子弟子,有才艺,性谦退,季氏之宰.

The Ji family was about to sacrifice to Tai Mountain.

Confucius said to Ran You:

Can you not rectify this event?

Ran You answered: I cannot.

Confucius said:Alas! Are you saying that the Tai Mountain is not so discerning as Ling Fang?

3.7 :君子无所争,必也射乎!揖让而升,下而饮. 其争也君子.

本章君子争之风度

老师说:君子对人没有什么相争.有的话,只有在比射的时候.但也相互揖让,再升堂较射.射毕,下堂,饮酒,就说是争吧,也是君子之风的争啊.

仪礼[书名]大射礼:射鞴(gou粤读究,古代士卒的臂套),{司射适次袒决遂}

:射鞴也; 射鞴:臂捍也.

古代射礼有四.大射,宾射,燕射,乡射.

Confucius said: A virtuous person does not compete.If aarchery must be considered as a competition,a virtuous person bows complaisantly,to his competitors; thus he ascends the hall,descends,and drinks to salute his rivals.Even competing is in a  virtuous manner.

3.8 子夏问曰:巧笑倩兮,美目盼兮,素以为绚兮.何谓也?子曰:绘事后素,:礼后乎? :起也者商也!始可与言诗已矣!

本章记孔子子夏,可与之论诗.

子夏:诗上说,美好地笑着双颊微动,多美啊,美艳的秋波流转,两目黑白分明多美啊!粉白素底上施上五彩的颜色,更见鲜明艳丽.这三句是何义?…老师说:绘画,先把粉底打好,然后才加五彩的颜色;…子夏:这不是使人先要有忠信的美质,才可用礼来文饰么? …老师说:启发我思想的是,像这样可以和你论诗了.

巧笑巧笑倩兮,美目盼兮:{诗经}卫风硕人篇二章; 素以为绚兮:是逸诗.不见今三百篇中; 绘事后素:谓先以粉为底,然后再施采,即绘画之事后于素.譬如人要先有美质,然后才可施以文饰; 礼后乎:言人先要有忠信之质,而后再以礼文饰之; :子夏.

子夏:507-?姓卜名商,卫国温人,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..子夏继孔子之后,系统性传授儒家经典的第一人.被后世誉为传经鼻祖.他晚年是战国时期开始,魏国西河一带教学,开创的{西河学派}培育出大批经国治世良材,并成为孔儒支流法家成长的摇篮.

Zixia asked:What is the meaning of this poett: The pretty dimples of her artful smile! The well-defined black and white of her eye! The plain ground for colourings;

Confucius said: The technique of laying on the colours following the preparation of a purified ground.

Zixia said: Rites is a subsequent matter? (virture is primarily a must.

Confucius said: It is Shang {Zixia} who can bring out the profound meaning of the poet. Now I can begin to talk about the odes with you.

3.9 :礼吾能言之.不足征也,礼吾能言之.不足征也,文献不足故也.,则吾能征之矣.

本章说夏殷之礼文献已佚,不足征验.

师说:朝的礼,我能说出来.但它的后代杞国不足以作证;朝的礼,我能说出来.但它的后代宋国不足以作证;这是因为他们的历史文献和贤者不够的缘故.如果文献和贤者充足,我就可以用来作证.

:古代国名.在今河南杞县,夏禹后代的封国; :证明;  :古国名,故城在今河南商丘市一带.商朝之后裔;所封之国; 文献:文指典籍,献指贤人.

Confucius said: I can describe the ceremonies of the Xia dynasty, but Chi cannot sufficiently attest my words. I can describe the ceremonies of the Yin dynasty, but Sung cannot not sufficiently attest my words. They cannot do so because of the insufficiency of their archives and savants. If those were sufficient I could adduce them in support of my words.

3.10 :禘自既灌而往者,吾不欲观之矣.

本章斥之禘祭非礼.

老师说:我观看禘祭,在初献以香酒灌地降神之后,便不想再看了.

:帝王之大祭.成王以周公有大勋,赐鲁可用天子之大祭.然不合礼.

禘祭:上自始祖,下及历代皆合祭,五年一祭.

:祭中初献礼,用煮香草和黍(shu)酒灌地以降神.

Confucius said: At the grand sacrifice, after the pouring out of the libation, I have no desire to look onward.

3.11或问之说,:不知也.知其说者,之于天下也,其如示诸斯乎?;指其掌.

本章言若有能知祭之义,可以之治天下,不难了!

有人孔子礼的理论.老师说:我不知道.知道这种理论的人对于治理天下,就像把东西放在这里一样容易吧.(孔子指着手掌地说)

:di粤读蒂;古代祭名; 不知也:孔子因不满国君僭用禘礼故不愿深言之, 祭为国君越礼之举也.

Someone asked about the Grand Sacrifice.

Confucius said:I do not know. He who knew its meaning would find it as easy to govern kingdom as to look on this – (Confucius pointing to his palm)

3.12 祭如在,祭神如神在.子曰:吾不与祭,如不祭.

本章言祭礼当以诚敬为主.

祭祖先的时候,就好像祖先在现场一样.祭神,就好像神在面前;…老师说:我如果没有参加祭礼,纵有人代祭,也如没祭.

吾不与祭,如不祭:我如没参加祭礼,纵有人代祭,也如同没有祭.

祭如在:言祭先人,必诚敬其意如同生时一样.

He who sacrificed ancesters, (should) as if ancesters were present. He who sacrificed to spirits, as if the spirits were present.

Confucius said: I consider my not being present at the sacrifice as if I had not sacrifice.

3.13 王孙贾问曰:与其媚于奥,宁媚于灶(zao灶粤),何谓也?子曰:不然!获罪于天,无所祷也.

本章言人如不违天理,何用去求神.

王孙贾问道:‘与其巴结奥神,不如巴结灶神.’这句话是什么意思?…老师说:不对,如果得罪了天,再怎么祈祷都没有用了.

王孙贾:大夫, :室中西南隅,为家中尊者之神所栖处(亲幸).: (zao,灶也)灶神(比喻权臣).

Wang Sunja asked: What does it mean ‘It is better to be obsequious to the furnace then to the southwest corner?’

Confucius said:Not so. He who offends against Heaven has none to whom he can toady(pray) for help.

3.14 :周监于二代,郁郁乎文哉!吾从.

本章赞代礼乐制度文物之美盛.

老师说:代的礼制,是看看夏殷两代的加以修订.因此的礼乐文物美盛极了,我赞成遵从代的

:犹视也; 二代:(2070-1600),商殷(1600-1046)二代; 郁郁:美盛.

Confucius said:Zhou had the advantage of examining its two previous dynasties. How complete and elegant are its norm.I adopt Zhou.

3.15 入大(),每事问.或曰:孰谓鄹(鄹同周)人之子知礼乎?入太庙,每事问.闻之曰:是礼也.

本章孔子谓敬谨自谦,礼之道也.

孔子入太庙助祭.遇事便问.有人说:谁说这鄹邑的年轻人知道礼呢?他入太庙,遇事便问;…老师听到此,便:参与祭典应敬谨,道就是礼啊!

大庙:大即太,周公之庙.:鄹同周.孔子父亲叔梁纥被封邑大夫.

When Confucius enters the grand temple,he asks about everything. Someone comments,: Who say that the son of Shu Liangge(confucius’s father) knows the rites?! He entered the temple and asked about everything.

Confucius heard the remark and said: This (asking about everything) is itself a rite.

3.16 :射不主皮,为力不同科,古之道也.

本章言射礼中之主旨,以比较射艺,不比较力度.

老师说:射礼中比教射艺注重中的,不注重在射穿皮布.因各人的体力不一.此乃时的道理啊!

射不主皮:射主于中鹄(target),不主穿皮布.

Confucius said: In archery, the principal is not to penetrate the leather of the target,because individual strength is not equal. This was our ancient concept.

3.17 子贡欲去告朔之饩羊(xi),:赐也尔爱其羊,我爱其礼.

本章礼不可废.

子贡将每月告朔的羊免除掉;…老师说:你是爱惜那一只羊,我却是爱惜这种礼.(恐免除一只羊,影响到告朔之礼也废了)

告朔:,每年冬季天子颁布次年每月之朔日.诸侯受而藏之祖庙.以后每月朔日,用一杀而未烹的羊,祭告祖庙,请颁布朔日之意; :废除; : xi,赠送之食物(:饩之以粟)

子贡:国人.(贡本字赣),姓端木名赐.孔子弟子,有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于齐.

3.18 :事君尽礼,人以为谄也.

本章明事君之道,以正君君臣臣之义.

老师说:事君能尽礼的,世人反说是谄媚.

事君尽礼:此时期.三家大夫皆强,君弱.众皆趋附三家.孔子盛礼事君疑其为谄也.

Confucius said:To attend full obligation of rites in serving the prince is accounted by people as being obsequious.

3.19 定公:君使臣,臣事君,如之何? 孔子对曰:君使臣以礼,臣事君以忠.

本章明君臣之礼.

鲁定公:君使用臣,臣事奉君,应该怎样的呢? …老师说:君使用臣要以礼.臣事奉君要尽忠.

定公:,,509(周敬王十一年),哀公(494)之父.谥曰.

Duke Ting asked how should a prince treat his ministers, and how should ministers serve their prince.

Confucius replied: A prince should treat his ministers according to the appropriate rites; Ministers should serve their prince with loyalty.

3.20 :关雎乐而不淫,哀而不伤.

本章赞美{诗经}关雎,哀乐皆不过分.

老师说:{关雎}这一篇,有乐,不流于放荡.有哀,也不过分悲伤.

关雎:{诗经}国风周南中首

.ju,鸟名如雎鸠,王雎;*有书误印为sui,名如河南睢县

:过分也.

Confucius said: The Guan Jiu ode is expressive of enjoyment all but excessive (dissipating), and grief of all but harmful(debilitating).

3.21 哀公问社于宰我.宰我对曰:夏后氏以松,人以柏,周人以栗.:使民战栗.子闻之曰:成事不说,遂事不谏,既往不咎.

本章言孔子宰我妄言社树之义.

哀公宰我社主用什么作神.宰我:夏后氏用松树.人用柏树,人用栗树.这是使人民见到害怕得发抖.师听到这话很不满意的说:已经做过的事就不必再解释了.已经完成了的事就不必再挽救了.已经过去的事就不必再追究了.

:所以祀其地之神.立社必树其地所宜之木,即以其树木为社主. :

宰我:,子我,也称宰我,国人.宰予口齿伶俐,能说善辩,被列为孔门四科十哲(言语科)之一.孔子常派遣他出使各国,使于齐”,“使于楚.宰予遇事有自己的主见.

Duke Ai asked Zaiwo about the altars’icon for the spirits of land.

Zaiwo replied: The Xia stood Pine tree as  icon;Yin stood Cypress tree as icon;Zhou stood  Chestnut tree as icon;effectively thereby to cause their people to be in awe.When Confucius heard it, he said: Things that are done,it is needless to talk about; Things that have had their course,it is superfluous to remonstrate about. Things that are past, it is needless to blame.

3.22:管仲之器小哉? 或曰:管仲俭乎? :管事有三归,官事不摄,焉得俭?然则管仲知礼乎? :邦君树塞门.管氏亦树塞门.邦君为两君之好,有反坫.管氏亦有反坫.管氏而知礼,孰不知礼?

本章言管仲的识量不大.不知礼.

师说:管仲()的识量小啊! …有人说管仲很俭么?’…师说:管仲有三处归舍,各聘家臣分职独立管事,不相兼代.怎可算是节俭?…又有人:那么管仲知礼吗?…师说:国君有屏门,管仲家也有屏门.国君为两国君友好宴会,设反酌的玷台,管仲的家也设反.如果说管仲知礼,那么谁还不知礼呢?

管仲:夷吾,大夫,桓公霸诸侯; 三归:家有三处馆.三归:台名;

官事不摄:每公馆皆有官以司其事(butler); 树塞门:门内设屏以蔽门外; :dian坫粤读店,土筑之处,古礼两君相会,主人酌酒进宾,饮毕,宾反酌于.

Confucius said:Small indeed was the capacity of Guan Zhong for rites!

Someone said: Was Guan Zhong thrifty?

Replied: Guan has three wellings. They all have their owner butler.How can you say Guan Zhong is thrifty?

Asked: Then, did Guan Zhong know the rites?

Confucius said:The princes of States have an entrance blockage screen, Guan Zhong copied likewise.The princes of States when meeting visitors,had an designated area on which to place their inverted cups. Guan Zhong had also designated such a stand.If Guan Zhong knew the rites,who does not know rites? 

3.23 大师:乐其可知也,始作翕如也.(读纵)之纯如也.皦如也,绎如也,以成.

本章记孔子鲁太师论乐之道.

师告诉国乐官有关奏乐之道:乐的过程可以知道的.当开始,各种乐器合奏,接着声音放开,音调谐和,节奏分明,连续不断,直到这一套乐章完成.

:xi粤读邑,相合和顺也; :zong粤读纵,同纵,放也; :yi粤读亦,相续不断如抽丝; :jiao粤读皎,清晰也.

太师:乐官名; 翕如也:犹恰如此;

Confucius speaking to the grand music master of Lu, said:the way to perform music is known.At the commencement of the piece, All parts should sound together. As it jproceeds, they should be in harmony while severally distinct and flowing without break, and thus on to the conclusion.

3.24封人请见,:君子之至于斯也,吾未尝不得见也; 从者见之.出曰:二三子何患于丧乎?天下之无道也久矣,夫将以夫子为木铎.

本章记孔子以德智教导世人.

封人要求拜见(孔子),说道:凡贤人到了这地方,我无不会见的; …随从的弟子们领他去见孔子.旣见了出来对弟子们说:诸位啊!何必忧虑现无官职呢?天下无道混乱已很久啦,天意将要使你们老师做一位警世的木铎教导世人.

封人:,卫邑.封人:掌封疆关口之官; 君子:当时称贤人; 二三子:称孔子弟子们; :失位也; 木铎:金口木舌之铃,发布政教时用,振之以警众.

…a guardian of a border post once characterized Confucius as the [wooden tongue for a bell]of the age,sounding Heaven

3.25 :韶尽美矣,又尽善矣,尽美矣,未尽善也.

本章论韶,两乐之美善.

师评论说:韶乐可算十分美盛,所蕴涵的意义,也可算到达至善的境地.乐亦可算十分美盛,不过,所涵蕴的意义,尚未到至善境地.(含有杀伐之声)

:虞舜(2100)时之舞乐(参阅7.13); :西周 武王发(1100)时之舞乐.

Confucius said of the melody of shao,that it was extremely beautiful and also extremely perfect.He said of the Wu that it was extremely beautiful but not extremely perfect.

3.26:居上不宽,为礼不敬,临丧不哀,吾何以观之哉?

本章论观察人之道.

师说:居在上位,不能以宽厚待下.参加行礼,态度不恭敬.遭临到丧事,不够哀伤.我还用什么来观察他呢?

为礼:参与礼节;临丧:遭遇丧事.

Confucius said: Those authorities in lack of generosity, pay no respect in keeping the rites, attending funerals and not expressing condolences, What else do I need to assess them?!

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