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为政 第二篇  

2011-08-12 11:57:06|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译为政 第二篇 共二十四章

 

为政 第二篇 共二十四章

 

2.1 :为政以德,譬如北辰,居其所而众星共之.

本章论以德行领导政治.

老师说:管理国家的政事若能依靠德行,那就会像北极星一样,待在固定的地位,众多的群星都环绕着它的周围.

北辰:北极星,位于众星之中,为天之中枢; :拱也,围绕之义;

Confucius said: Those who exercise government by means of virtue,are parallel to the Polaris, whick keep their position and all stars turn towards them.  

2.2 :诗三百,一言而蔽之 曰 [思无邪]

本章言诗经的主旨.

老师说:诗经虽然有三百篇,只要一句话就可包括了.‘使人性情归于纯正不生邪念

诗三百:{诗经}共三百零五篇. :包括; :语助词;

Confucius said: The 3 hundred pieces of the Poetry (Odes), as to summarise them in 1 phrase,Think no Evil.

2.3 :道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻,道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格.

本章言孔子的政治理想.

老师说:用法律命令来引导老百姓,用刑罚来整齐他们,这样他们虽然能够苟免犯罪,却不知犯罪是可耻的. 用道德来引导他们,用礼来整齐他们,这样他们不但知廉耻,会甘心情愿的归服.

:引导; :整齐一致; :标准也;

民免而无耻:不觉得不服从领导是可耻

Confucius said: If people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be ruling them by means of punishments,they will abide laws to avoid punishments, but have no sense of shame.If they are led by virtue,and uniformity sought to be given them by the rites,they will have the sense of shame ,hence will become good. 

2.4 :吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲不踰矩.

本章孔子自述.

老师说:我十五岁有志于学业,三十岁说话做事都能够合乎礼,四十岁(明白了世上的各种事理)能够不受迷惑,五十岁懂得了天命自然法则,六十岁听到别人说的话,便能了解其主旨,七十岁便随心所欲,所想的一切都不会超越规炬.

:; 不惑:对于事理之所当然,皆无有疑惑; 天命:天地间一切自然之法则,亦一切事物的必然之理; 耳顺:能听到外界一切言论,无论其是与非,昏不为所动摇所迷惑了; 不踰矩:不超越法度.

…The most significant personal descriptions of Confucius’spiritual development…at 15 I set my heart on learning; at 30 I firmly took my stand;at 40 I had no delusions; at 50 I knew the Mandate of Heaven; at 60 my ear was attuned; at 70 I followed my heart’s desire without overstepping the boundaries of right. 

2.5 孟懿子问孝.:无违.樊迟,告之曰:孟孙问孝于我,我对曰:无违.樊迟:何谓也? :,事之以礼,,葬之以礼,祭之以礼.

本章言孝不可有违于礼.

孟懿子问怎样才算是孝道.老师说:不可有违于礼; …后来,樊迟孔子驾车,老师告诉他说:孟孙问我怎样尽孝,我对他说不可有违于礼;…樊迟:这怎样讲? …老师说:父母在时,事奉要合乎礼.死了,丧葬要合乎礼.以后在祭祀时,要合乎礼.

孟懿子:大夫姓仲孙何忌.(shi,死后追加的封号)(yi,本义美好也(犹指品德而).

樊迟:515-?樊须,字子,故亦作樊迟.,孔子弟子,仕于季氏.

:驾车

Mang Yizi asked about filial duty. Confucius said: Not violating the rites. Soon after, while Fan Chi was chauffeuring Confucius, Fucius told him:Mang Sun asked me about filial dity,I told him not to violate. Fan Chi asked: What did you mean? Confucius said: That parents, when alive, should be served according to rites, when dead, should be buried according to rites,and that they should be remembering according to rites.

2.6 孟武伯问孝,:父母唯其疾之忧.

本章言子女谨慎持身,不让父母担心,是为孝矣!

孟武伯问怎样才算是孝;老师说:父母唯有以子女的疾病为忧.

孟武伯:孟懿子之子.(zhi,本义猪也).谥曰.

Mang Wubo asked about filial duty. Confucius said: Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick.[connotation in this verse, taking good care of oneself is carrying out a good filial duty]

2.7 子游问孝.:今之孝者是谓能养.至于犬马,皆能有养.不敬何以别乎?

本章言孝重敬爱之心.

子游问怎样才算是孝;老师说:现今世俗人所谓孝,就是指衣食住方面的能够供奉父母.其实像人对狗马,皆有养活牠.如果对父母供养没有孝心,那和供养狗马有何分别呢?

:以衣食住供给;

子游:511-?,子游,国人.武城.特习于礼,尤于文学,列位孔门十哲(子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).

Ziyou asked about filial duty. Confucius said: Nowadays, filial duty means the support of parents. However dogs and horses likewise are being supported too.Without reverence,what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?

2.8 子夏问孝.:色难.有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔;曾是以为孝乎?

本章言子女孝敬父母,酒食供养,未足为孝.难在脸上的表情和态度也.

子夏问怎样才算是孝;…老师说:做子女的难在事奉父母时,脸上的容颜态度.假使家里有事,子弟们去操劳,有了酒饭,先让年老长辈食用,这就是孝吗?

色难:事奉父母时,脸上表现出的颜容和态度是最难的;

先生:父兄; :食用; :乃也.

子夏:507-?姓卜名商,卫国温人,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..子夏继孔子之后,系统性传授儒家经典的第一人.被后世誉为传经鼻祖.他晚年是战国时期开始,魏国西河一带教学,开创的{西河学派}培育出大批经国治世良材,并成为孔儒支流法家成长的摇篮.

:侍奉父母时脸丄所戴的表情.

Zixia asked about filial piety (which is on top of filial duty), Confucius said: Such difficulty is with the countenance. When parents have any troublesome affairs,the children should take toil off them.When the children have wine and food,they should set them before their parents , is these considered to be filial piety?

2.9 :吾与回言终日,不违如愚,退而省其私(私下讨论),亦足以(),回也不愚

本章孔子颜渊好学的情形.

老师说:我和颜回论道一整天,他都没有发问.信受奉行.像愚人一般.等他退下,我省察他和别人私下讨论,都能发挥我的言教.! 实在不愚钝.

:521-490.子渊,亦谓颜渊.国人.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).敏而好学.问一知十,孔子自认不如.不迁怒,不贰过,贫居陋巷,箪食(dan;古时竹饭碗)瓢饮(piao,剖开的葫芦以盛水),而不改其乐.孔子称其贤.早卒,后世尊为复圣.

Confucius said: I have talked with Yan Hui for a whole day, and he had reverted no disagreement-as if he were stupid.As he retreated and I examined his conduct,I had found him able to illustrate my teachings. See, Hui is not stupid at all.

2.10 :视其所以,观其所由,察其所安,人焉廋哉?人焉廋哉?

本章言观察人的方法.

老师说:观察他的行,再进一步观察他行的趋向,再观察他心之所安,这个人还有什么地方可以掩藏得住呢? 这个人(邪与正)还有什么地方可以掩藏得住呢?

:所为; :行为的趋向; :心之所乐; :sou;藏匿义.;谜语

Confucius said: See what a person does,mark his/her motives, examine in what things he/she rests, how can that person conceal his/her mood? how can that person conceal his/her mood?

2.11 :温故而知新,可以为师矣.

本章言作为人师之道.

老师说:能温习以前所学的,开悟出新的知识,就可以作为人师了.

温故: 温习已知道的; 知新:开悟新知识.

Confucius said: one who can cherish his/her old knowledge and constantly revising it to acquire kew meaning from it, he/she can be a teacher of others.

2.12 :君子不器.

本章言君子不专限于一材一艺之长.要能通瞻全局.此乃{通悉}之谓也.亦为通识教育之缘.

老师说:一个君子不像某一个器具.(只能供某一种用途)

君子:成德之人; :限于一种用途之器皿.

Confucius said: A virtuous person does not act like an untensil.(which is a design for one purpose only.)

2.13 子贡问君子,:先行其言而后从之.

本章言君子当行在言先,言在行后.言行要一致.

子贡:怎样才算是君子?老师说:先做事,后说话.(做到了然后再说)

子贡:国人.(贡本字赣),端木.孔子弟子,有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.,.尝说出师敌以存.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于.

先做事后说话.

Zigong asked what constituteda man of virtue.

Confucius said:He acts before he speaks, and then speaks according to his actions.

2.14 :君子周而不比.小人比而不周.

本章评君子与小人,在品德上之不同.

老师说:君子待人忠信,不结党阿私.小人阿私结党,却不忠信待人.(参阅13.23君子和而不同,小人同而不和.)

:忠信待人.:阿私结党.

Zigong asked what constituted a man of virtue.

Confucius said: A virtuous person socializes but not cliques; Evil person cliques but not socializes.

2.15 :学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆.

本章言学与思同修并进.

老师说:只知向外学习不加内心思考,终将迷惘无所得.如只去思索不知学习,那对一切的事理,便觉危殆不安了.

:无所得义迷惘; :危而不安

Confucius said:Learning without thinking leads to misunderstanding.Thingking without learning is perilous.

2.16 :攻乎异端,斯害也已.

本章说求学不可以杂乱.

老师说:专向违反古道的学问上去努力,那就是害了自己.

异端:不循前人之言论.

联想:以此章贬若孔门迂腐者.无妨重2.11温故而知新.

Confucius said:To study weird doctrines,it is harmful indeed.

2.17:,诲女知之乎. 知之为知之,不知为不知.是知也

本章说明知的精义.

老师说:仲由!我教你什么叫[知道]![知道]就是知道,不知道就是知道不知道.这就是智慧了.

:子路鲁国卞人,子路一字季路,孔子弟子,(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立.太子(kuai)(gui,字本义瞎也),(蒯瞶出公之父亲)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓{孔悝之难},子路遂被害.

诲女:教汝,();

Confucius said: You,shall I teak you what knowledge is about? When you know a thing,to hold that you know it.and when you do not know a thing,just know that you do not know it.This is knowledge.

2.18 子张学干禄,:多闻阙疑,慎言其余,则寡尤.多见阙殆.慎行其余,则寡悔.言寡尤,行寡悔.禄在其中矣.

本章说求仕之道.

子张想学做官之道.老师说:多听别人的说话,把觉得有怀疑的事情搁置在一边.其余的也要谨慎地说.便可减少了过失.多去看别人做的,把觉得不安于心的放在一边,其余的也要谨慎地做,便可减少了后悔.说话少过失,做事少后悔,想做官的禄位,就在这里面哩.

干禄:求职; :空置; :过失,被人责难; :心有所不安;

子张:颛孙,孔子弟子.孔子48.陈国人,孔子曾说过师也过(11.14),师也辟(11.16);后世有子张之儒派.

Zizhang was learning with a view to official emolument.

Confucius said:Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt,while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others; then you will afford fewer occasions for blame.See much and put aside the things which seem perilous,while you are cautious at the same timein carrying the others into practice;then you will have fewer occasions for repentance. When one gives fewer occasions for blame in his words,and fewer occasions for repentance in his conductm, he is in the way to secure emolument.

2.19 哀公问曰:何为则民服? 孔子对曰:举直错诸枉,则民服.举枉错诸直,则民不服.

本章言为君者,使人民服从之道.

哀公:怎样做才能使人民信服? …孔子:举用正直之人,废置邪曲之人,人民便服从了.如举用那些邪曲之人,废置正直之人,人民便不服从了.

哀公:;.谥曰.

:正直; :歪曲,(矫枉过正)

Duke Ai of the State Lu asked what should be done in order to secure the submission of the people.

Confucius replied: Promote the upright (officials) and set aside the crooked (ones), then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright then, the people will not submit.

2.20 季康子:使民敬忠以劝,如之何? :临之以庄则敬,孝慈则忠,举善而教不能则劝.

本章论怎样使人民敬上,忠君,互相劝勉为善.

季康子,使人民敬上,尽忠,并且能相互劝勉为善,要怎样才能做到呢?…孔子:在上位的要庄重的态度对待下民,人民自会敬重在上的.在上位的要孝敬父母,慈爱子弟,人民自能尽忠,举荐有贤德的善人,教导才能不足的人,人民自会相互劝勉为善了.

:上对下; :互相劝勉.

季康子:复姓季孙.谥曰.?-468国大夫正卿事鲁哀公,此时国公室衰弱.季孙族系之名乃公子季友之后.亦称为季氏.季康子位高权重,是当时国的权臣. {历史背景}季康子季孙肥,春秋时期国的正卿.姬姓,季氏,.谥康.史称季康子.季孙肥[]字则为尊称,所以说季孙并不是氏称,季孙某仅限于对宗主的称谓而已,宗族一般成员只能称季某.季孙肥季氏,而非季孙氏.季平子季桓子,季桓子季康子.季氏为首的三桓强盛,季氏宗主季康子位高权重,是当时国的权臣.再叙历史上此时孔子门生的政迹:鲁定公十五年,公薨,哀公蒋.当时,季桓子为首的{三桓}甚为强盛.哀公二年,季桓子,子肥,是为季康子.当时的,,国两个大国的夹缝里生存,处境不是很好.{三桓}之间的关系也不是很融洽,季康子的专权,让其它二桓:叔孙氏,孟氏很不满.哀公七年(486),(夫差)无礼,强逼国贡献百牢(一百条牢[肉牛];礼制定各诸侯贡礼不能超过十二牢),国被迫贡献,继而国太宰(pi,本字解形大也)季康子来朝见他,虽然国不如国强,康子还是拒绝了,似乎很有气节,实则他觉得国虽大却难成气候,最终仍是无法称霸的,故无惧于他.哀公十一年(482),国入侵,叔孙,孟氏季氏专权,不肯听从季康子的号令将人拦在国土之外.季康子任用孔子的弟子冉有,击退了,接着会同国在艾陵大败,史称艾陵之战.然而此战之后,季康子却加紧战备,以防国再来.哀公十一年,季康子使公华,公宾,公林以币(古代赠送宾客或用于祭祀的束帛.币帛)来迎接孔子回国.至此,{三桓}逐出国的孔子终于得以回,并完成他晚年修书的事业.可以说,季康子间接地成全了孔夫子作为圣人的大业.哀公十二年,季康子[田赋],改革税赋,进一步加速礼崩乐坏的过程,这当然是孔子不愿意看到的.哀公十六年(479),孔子.鲁定公时期,孔子是与三桓斗争的重要权臣,但是结果还是被强大的三桓打败,哀公二十七年,469,季康子.当年(469),季康子,叔孙文子,孟武伯跟随哀公后庸(越王勾践)平阳开会,季康子会中讨论问题谈到子贡.季康子:假如现在子贡在这里,我们根本不会与蛮夷(越国)订这种盟约.孟武伯:的确不错,那为什么不叫子贡? 季康子:我马上就叫子贡;孙叔文子:即使是到了以后,也不要忘记今天的说话(故此左氏春秋亦有记载此事也); …同年夏天四月己亥日,季康子.鲁哀公虽然亲自吊唁,然所行的却是低一级不完备的礼节.

魯哀公雖然親自弔唁,然所行的卻是低一級不完備的禮節.

Jikang asked how to make people to pay respect and reverence to their ruler, to be faithful to him and to go on nerve themselves to virtue.

Confucius said: Ruler with a solemn appearance is respectful. Let him be filial and benevolent ,people will be faithful to him.Let him praise the good and teach the incompetent, the people will eagerly seek to be virtuous.

2.21 或谓孔子:奚不为政? :书云{孝乎,惟孝于兄弟}施于有政,是亦为政,奚其为为政?

本章言在家孝友于兄弟,就是政.

有人对孔子:先生为何不从政? …孔子:尚书上说孝啊!能孝敬父母,又友爱于兄弟’;人在家中,治理家中事,这就是从政.还有什么专门为从政而去从政呢?

:何也; :尚书; :善也

Confucius when asked why he did not take part in government,he responded by citing a passage from 尚书:Simply by being a good son and friendly to his brothers a man can exert an influence upon government! To show that what a person does in the confines of his fome is politically significant.

2.22:人而无信,不知其可也.大车无輗,小车无軏,其何以行之哉.

本章言人不可无信.

老师说:一个人如没信用,不知道还有什么可以说是对的.这好比在大车上没有輗,小车上没有軏,它们怎可以走呢?

:ni粤读,crossbar牛车两辕之端.有横木以缚軏的; :yue軏粤读乙little crossbar轻车或在战车上两辕之端,头曲向上,钩着衡用以驾马的.此輗和軏皆为车辕之头.钩在横的关键.无此,车便不能行.

Confucius said:I do not know how a person without integrity can proceed anywhere.How can a large carriage can be driven without the crossbarfor yoking the oxen,or a small carriage without the fixture for yoking its horses?

2.23子张:十世可知也? 子曰: 殷因于夏礼,所损益可知也.周因于殷礼,所损益可知也.其或继周者,虽百世可知也.

本章言礼之因革损益,自有轨迹可寻.

子张:十个朝代以后的政治,可以预知么? …老师说:代因袭于代的礼制,所有增减的,现在可以知道,因袭于代的礼制,所有增减的.现在可以知,将来有继而起,甚而至于一百代以后,也可以预知的.

十世:上者易姓为一代.十个朝代.

子张:颛孙,孔子弟子.孔子48.国人,孔子曾说过师也过(11.14),也辟(11.16);后世有子张之儒派.令尹:官位,楚上卿执政者;

Zizhang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said:The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Xia; wherein it took from or added to them may be known.The Zhou dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin; wherein it took from or added to them may be known . Some other may follow the Zhou,but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be traced.

2.24 :非其鬼而祭之,谄也.见义不为,无勇也.

本章言人祭祀,祭当祭之鬼.做事,做当做之事.

师说:不应当去祭的鬼去祭他,这就是谄媚行,遇到应该做的事不去做, 这就是没有勇的精神.

非其鬼:谓非所应当祭祀之鬼; :求媚; 见义不为:见到应当做的不做.

Confucius said:For a person to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him/her is flattery. To see what is right and not to do it is in lack of courage.

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