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微子 第十八篇  

2011-08-09 14:20:10|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译微子 第十八篇 共十一章

微子 第十八篇 共十一章

18.1微子去之,箕子为之奴,比干谏而死.孔子:殷有三仁矣.

本章言三人的行为虽不同,然皆为仁人也.

纣王无道,微子离开走了,箕子被囚为奴,比干苦谏被杀了,孔子:殷代有三个仁人呢!

微子:,商纣之庶兄,纣王无道而离去; 箕子:胥余,之叔父,直谏被囚.因佯狂受辱;比干:之叔父,苦谏被剖心而死;

Weizi fled from him(Tyrant Emeror Zhou of Shang),Qizi became his slave,Bigan remonstrated him and was put to death.

Confucius said: The Yin dynasty possessed these three men of virtue.

18.2柳下惠为士师,三黜.人曰:子未可以去乎? …:直道而事人,焉往而不三黜? 枉道而事人,何必去父母之邦?

本章柳下惠之行.

柳下惠做狱官,多次被革职,有人说:你不可以离开()国吗? …柳下惠:如果我按照正直的道理事奉君主,到哪里去不会被多次革职呢?如果不按照正直的道理事奉君主,又何必一定要离开父母所在的国家呢?

士师:狱官; 三黜:三度被革职; 父母之邦:祖国;

When Luxia Wei was chief warden,he was thrice dismissed.Someone asked him:Are you not able to leave yet?

Luxia Wei said:If I choose the  upright way to serve people ,where on earth can I go and not being thrice dismissed? If I choose the crooked way to serve people,why is it necessary for me to leave my parents’ state?

18.3齐景公孔子:季氏则吾不能,季孟之间待之; …:吾老矣!不能用也;…孔子.

本章记孔子,不能用而去.崔述{洙泗考信录}言此章所记与事实有不符,疑非孔氏之遗书.

齐景公讲到接待孔子的礼节时说:如果要像国君对待季氏那样,我是不能够的;我只能用低季氏而高于孟氏的适中礼节来对待他; …后来又说:我老了,不能任用孔子;...孔子便离开国了.

明朝<<石刻圣迹图:晏婴沮封>>,齐景公孔子问政,孔子:节财;…景公很高兴,欲张尼溪封给孔子.晏婴对景公说:他所主张的效法古人是不能实行的.孔丘居傲自大是不能做臣子的.国君想任用他改变齐国风俗,不符合先王之道啊!…齐景公听从晏婴意见.孔子:我老了,不能用你了;…孔子遂离开齐.

季孟:三卿,季氏最贵,季孟,其礼亦隆矣.

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,东壁,幼有奇才,乾隆间举于乡,嘉庆间历知福建罗源,上杭诸县,有廉声.后乞归,以著述终老.之学以考证为主.不墨守旧说.无从考证者辄以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.着甚伙.考信录最有名.

Duke Jing of Qi was considering how to treat Confucius for his appointment.Thus said:I cannot treat him as the prince of Lu treat the Ji clan.I can probably offer him a position as in between the Ji clan and the Meng family.

Duke Jing further said:I am already old. Not useful anymore.

Confucius left.

18.4人归女乐,季桓子受之,三日不朝,孔子.

本章言邪正不并立.孔子见在不能行道,遂离去.

国赠送一队女乐师给,季桓子接受下来,君臣们一同观赏,废了朝礼三天,孔子就走了.

:,赠送也; 人归女乐:定公十四年,孔子司寇,摄相事,齐人惧,赠女乐师于.

明朝<<石刻圣迹图:女乐文马>>:孔子执政,国日益强盛.国害怕鲁国称霸诸侯,便采用了黎鉏(chu粤读锄,本字义)的建议.赠送给鲁定公女乐八十人,文马三十驷(四匹马一驷).企图使国君臣不和,耿于玩乐.君沉湎于女色而怠于朝政.孔子不忍心离开国而宣扬国君的过错.及至鲁定公连膰(fan读凡,宗庙祭祀用的烤)也没按规定分送给大臣,孔子只得辞官离开国去周游列国.

季桓子:大夫,; 三日不朝:定公季孙君臣相与观之,废朝礼三天.

The people of Qi sent Lu a present of female musicians.Ji Huanzi accepted it.He was absent from the court for three days.Confucius left Lu.

18.5楚狂接舆歌而过孔子:凤兮!凤兮!何德之衰?往者不可谏,来者犹可追.已而!已而!今之从政者殆而! …孔子,欲与之言,趋而辟之,不得与之言.

本章记楚狂为一有道之士.孔子当知难而退.

国一个狂人,接着孔子之车后而歌,超越过车前唱道:凤啊! 凤啊!怎么你的德性会如此衰退呢?已过去的也不用说了,正来的还可来得及,算了吧!算了吧! …如今当政的,那一个不是危殆无可救药了呢! …孔子下车,想和他谈谈,那狂人赶快地避开了,没法和他交谈.

楚狂接舆:楚之隐士贤人,佯狂避世,以其接孔子之车接舆,论语中的隐士多以事命名,如看门的称{晨门},执杖的称{丈人}; :灵鸟,有道则见,无道则隐,以比孔子; 何德之衰:讽刺孔子世已无道而不隐去为德衰也; :无药可救也; :避开也;

A madman of of Chu,while meeting Confucius’carriage,passed the front of the carriage singing:Phoenix Oh! Phoenix Oh! How feeble is your virtue! As to the past,remonstration was impossible.future is yet to catch up with.Its over! Its over! Dangerous are those working in government.

Confucius alighted hurrily to talk to him.The madman eschewed quickly.Confucius was therefore unable to speak with him.

18.6长沮 桀溺,耦而耕,孔子过之,使子路问津焉.长沮:夫执舆者为谁?…子路:孔丘;…:是鲁孔丘?…:是也;…:是知津矣;…问于桀溺. 桀溺:子为谁?…:仲由;…:是也;…:是鲁孔丘之徒与?…对曰:;…:滔滔者天下皆是也,而谁以易之?*与其从辟人之士也,岂若从辟世之士哉?…耰而不辍.子路行以告.夫子怃然曰:鸟兽不可与,吾非斯人之徒与? 而谁与?天下有道,不与易也;

本章记孔子苦心济世,而避世之隐者不明其心.

长沮 桀溺二人并立在田里耕作,孔子经过那里,子路问渡口在那里.长沮:那车上执着马缰的是谁啊? …子路:孔丘; …长沮:国的孔丘? …子路:是的; …长沮:那他应该是知道路的啊! …子路桀溺,桀溺:你是谁?…子路:我是仲由;…桀溺:是鲁孔丘的门生么?…子路:是的;…桀溺:混乱的样子,天下到处都是如此呢.又有谁能改变这局面?况且你跟从避人的学者,倒不如跟从避世的学者吧?…说话间仍然覆着不停的种籽;…子路走去告诉孔子,老师怅失地说:人不可与山林里的鸟兽同在一起生活(避世也),我不跟这些世人在一起(避人)还跟谁在一起呢?如果天下正道在流行,孔丘用不着要改变什么了.

明朝<<石刻圣迹图:子路>>鲁哀公四年(491),孔子叶地返回,忘记了渡口在那里.看到长沮桀溺在耕田.便派子路去打听渡口.长沮 桀溺两个人却说:“滔滔的洪水到处都是,谁能改变它呢?与其跟随躲避世人的人不如随从躲避世道的人啊!”.说罢,依旧耕田.

长沮 桀溺:两个不知真名的隐士; :并耕; 问津:问济渡之处(渡江之码头也); 执舆:驾车也;滔滔:指世道混浊的样子; :避也; *:(汝也); :下种籽后以土盖平; 怃然:怅惘失意的样子;

辟人之士:孔子; 辟世之士:长沮 桀溺两个隐士;

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Changju and Jieni were sowing together in the field.Confucius was passing them and send Zilu to enquire where about is the ford.

Changju asked: Who is that man holding the reins in the carriage?

Zilu replied: He is Kong Qiu.

Changju asked:Is he Kong Qiu of Lu?

‘Yes.’Zilu said.

Changju said: He should then know where the ford is.

Zilu then asked Jieni.

Jieni asked:Who are you?

‘I am Zongyu’Zilu replied.

Jieni asked:Are you a disciple of Kong Qiu of Lu?

Zilu replied:Yes,I am.

Jieni said:Floodings,floodings like everywhere beneath heaven.and who can divert them? Moreover,rather to follow one who eschews people is it not better for you to follow us who shun the world ?

While saying so, they did not stop bending down covering seeds with soil.

Zilu went to tell the master.

Confucius sadly said:We can not herd with birds and beasts.If I do not associate with these people,the mankind,with whom shall I associate with? If the Way prevails under heaven,I need not be trying to change anything.

18.7子路从而后,遇丈人以杖荷莜.子路问曰:子见夫子乎?…丈人曰:四体不勤,五谷不分,孰为夫子? …植其杖而芸.子路拱而立,子路宿,杀鸡为黍而食之,见其二子焉.明日,子路行以告.:隐者也;…使子路反见之,至则行矣.子路:不仕无议.长幼之节,不可废也;君臣之义,如之何其废之? 欲洁其身而乱大伦.君子之仕也,行其义也.道之不行,已知之矣!

本章记一隐者,亦不明孔子之欲行道也.(类参阅14.41)

子路跟从孔子,落在后面,遇着一位老者,用着手杖担着一件除草的竹器,子路向前问道:你曾见到我的老师吗? …老者说:手足四肢都一点也不劳动,五谷都不认识,谁是你的老师? …(老者)便插好手杖,就锄草去了;…子路敛着双手很恭敬地站在那里.老者就留子路过宿.杀了鸡做饭给子路,叫两个儿子出来拜见子路.第二天,子路辞别走了,见到孔子,就把昨天的事,告诉孔子.老师说:是位隐士啊!…子路回去再看他,到了老人的家,老人却已出去了.子路便和他的两个儿:有道之士,不出来从政,是不应该的,长幼之序,不可废弃,君臣之义,怎可以废弃呢?为了要保持己身的高洁,而弄乱了人伦的大道.君子出来为政,是行君臣之义的大道,于正道之不能行,这是我们早就知道的啊!(明知不可为而为之).

丈人:持杖老者,真名不详的隐者; 荷莜:负着竹器,/锄草的工具; 四体不动五谷不分:不参加劳动工作,不能分辨五谷,责备子路不事农耕; :立之也; :除草也; :合手示敬也; 大伦:指人伦之大者如,父子之有亲,君臣之有义等; 

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Zilu had fallen behind while following Confucius.Zilu met an old man with a staff,carrying it on his shoulder with a seed-grain crate.Zilu asked:Have you seen my master?

The old man replied:Four  limbs are in lack of  travil,unable to distinguish five grains ,What kind of a master is he?

While saying that,he planted his staff into the ground and began picking his herbs.

Zilu stood by holding his arms respectfully..

The old man kept Zilu in his house for the night.He slaughtered a fowl,cooked it with broomcorn to feed Zilu.He also introduced Zilu his two sons.

Next day,Zilu went on his way reported all to his master.

Confucius said:He is a recluse.

Confucius sent Zilu back to see him but found the old man had gone.

Zilu said: Not to take office is not righteous.The relation mode of the old and the young must not be forsaken. How can the duty that binds the prince to his minister to be so void? Wishing to purify himself alone hence the moral relationship is completely disarrayed.

So for a superior man to take his office,he is only acting righteously.The goal is seemingly unreachable,even for that,he is well aware of it for a long time.

18.8 逸民:,叔齐,虞仲,,朱张,柳下惠,少连.:不降其志,不辱其身,,叔齐? …:柳下惠,少连,降志辱身矣! 言中伦,行中虑,其斯而已矣!…:虞仲,夷逸,隐居放言,身中清,废中权;…我则异!无可无不可.

本章论逸民七人.各人之高行.

遗逸的隐者:,叔齐,虞仲,,朱张,柳下惠,少连.老师说:不使志气降屈,不使己身受辱,那是,叔齐? 称道柳下惠,少连使志气屈降,使身受辱”,然说话合乎道理,行为合乎思考,他们能这样也就可以了! 称道虞仲,,“隐居起来,放肆着言论,本身是合乎了清高,被废中的言论,亦可视为权宜之道”…又说:我便跟他们不一样,只依这而行,没有什么可以也没有什么不可以的;

<再浅译上文>

隐逸不已当官的人有:,叔齐,虞仲,,朱张,柳下惠,少连.孔子:不肯屈降自己的意志,不肯纡身受辱,这就是,叔齐;…又说:柳下惠,少连虽降志辱身,但说话合乎义理次序,行为经过思虑,合乎众人的愿望,他们不过如此罢了;…又说虞仲,夷逸,虽然避世隐居,说话放纵不拘,但却保持了自己的清白.放弃官位,全身自保,合乎权变的道理.我却和这些人不,没什么可以,也没有什么不可以.

逸民:遗逸不在位之人; 虞仲:仲雍,太白之弟,后人荆蛮; 夷逸,朱张:生平不详; 少连:东夷之子; :理也;身中清,废中权:隐居独善,合乎道之清.被废弃中隐居放言,亦道中之权宜也.

Hermits:Boyi,Shuqi,Yuxhong,Yiyi,Zhuzhang,Luxia Hui and Shaolin.

Confucius said: Those who would not lower their ambitions,or bring humiliation upon themselves were Boyi and Shuqi.It was said of  Luxia Hui and Shaolian had submitted their wills and brought humiliation upon themselves,but their words were justifiable and their actions were after considerations. These were quite enough to glorify them. It may be said of Yuzhong and Yiyi that lived in seclusion,but talked unrestrainedly.Kept themselves clean as they relinquished their rights to stand in the government. For me,I am just different from them. There is no ‘to be’ or ‘not to be’in me.

18.9大师挚,饭干,三饭缭,四饭缼,鼓方叔入于河,鼗武入于汉,少师阳,击磬襄入于海.

本章载之事与孔子无关.崔述疑此章乃后人所入者.{崔述洙泗考信录}…也许本章非全文,缺句已散佚矣.

师挚去了,亚饭干到了,到了,四缺饭到了,鼓方叔去了黄河,播鼗武到了汉水附近;少师阳,击磬襄都入海到海岛去了.

大师:之乐官长,可能是{泰伯篇}师挚,参阅8.15; 亚饭,三饭,四饭:皆为以音乐侑食(古代劝人吃喝)之官; 播鼗:/摇也,tao鼗粤读淘,拔浪皷,有长柄,来回转动时,用短绳系在皷两旁的小皷槌击皷发声; 少师:乐官之辅手也;

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,东壁,幼有奇才,乾隆间举于乡,嘉庆间历知福建罗源,上杭诸县,有廉声.后乞归,以著述终老.学以考证为主.不墨守旧说.无从考证者辄以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.著甚伙.考信录最有名.

Zhi the grand musician went to Qi.Gan the second food adviser went to Chu.Liao the third food adviser went to Cai.Que the fourth food adviser went to Qin.Fangshu the chief drummer went the Yellow River direction.Wu,The small handdrum master went the Han River direction.Shao Yang the assistant and Xiang the chief master of stone-chime went to an island in the sea. 

N.B.This chapter maybe is connected with 14.39(if we consider the last two as one team who went the same direction as master and assistant)

18.10周公鲁公:君子不施其亲,不使大臣怨乎不以;故旧无大故则不弃也;无求备于一人.

本章记周公鲁公之言.崔述诛泗考信录认为此章与本篇不伦,疑是后人续入.

周公(儿子)鲁公:君子不遗弃他的亲人,不使大臣怨恨不用他,旧亲老友如没有重大逆迹过咎,不要废弃他们.不要对一个人身上去求全责备.

周公:周公旦; 鲁公:周公之子,伯禽.受封于; :或作弛,松弛,疏远,遗弃也; 大故:恶逆也; 求备:求全责备;

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,东壁,幼有奇才,乾隆间举于乡,嘉庆间历知福建罗源,上杭诸县,有廉声.后乞归,以著述终老.之学以考证为主.不墨守旧说.无从考证者辄以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.著甚伙惟考信录最有名.

The Duke of Zhou addressed his son the Duke of Lu:A virtuous prince does not discard his kinsmen.He would not cause his ministers to repine because of not being used.He would not dismiss any old ministers or friends unless he has good reasons.He does not demand people to be perfect in all respects.

18.11有八士:伯达,伯适,仲突,仲忽,叔夜,叔夏,季随,季騧.

本章记周代八士.崔述在{论语篇章辨疑}以为此章亦系后人所续入者.

代有八位贤人:伯达,伯适,仲突,仲忽,叔夜,叔夏,季随,季騧.

*周代八士身世不详.

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,东壁,幼有奇才,乾隆间举于乡,嘉庆间历知福建罗源,上杭诸县,有廉声.后乞归,以著述终老.之学以考证为主.不墨守旧说.无从考证者辄以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.著甚伙惟考信录最有名.

There were eight intelligent scholars in Zhou: Boda,Boshi,Zhongtu;Zhonghu,Shuye,Shuxia,Jisui and Jigua.

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