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阳货 第十七篇  

2011-08-09 15:20:56|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译】阳货 第十七篇 共二十六章

阳货 第十七篇 共二十六章

17.1阳货欲见孔子,孔子不见,孔子.孔子时其亡也而往拜之,遇诸涂.孔子:!予与尔; …:怀其宝而迷其邦,可谓仁乎? …:不可; …“好从事而亟失时,可谓知乎?” …:不可; … “日月逝矣!岁不我与;”…孔子:!吾将任矣!

本章记孔子不为权臣利用.言远害也.

阳货想会见孔子,孔子不见他.他送给孔子一只熟乳猪,孔子趁他不在家中的时候去回礼.正巧在路上相遇了.阳货孔子:!我跟你说; …阳货:一个人怀藏着道德和学问而听凭国家在迷乱,这可算是仁吗? …孔子答道:这不可算是仁;…阳货又问:喜欢想为政而屡次失去机会,这可算是智吗? …孔子答道:这不可算是智; …阳货:时光过得很快啊!岁月不饶人啊! …孔子:是的,我将会出来从政了.

明朝<<石刻圣迹图:退修诗书>>:孔子四十二岁鲁昭公去世,()晋定公(511),大夫季孙氏凌驾于国君之上.,而他的家臣(阳货)又实际掌握了鲁国的行政大权.孔子不满此时此刻鲁国的状况.不愿出仕做官.潜心修订[][][][],教授第子.孔子的学生越来越多了.

阳货:,季桓子家臣,曾囚季桓子而专国之政; 欲见孔子:欲令孔子出任助己也(或疑阳货,阳虎为二人,今不从); :馈赠; :蒸熟了的小猪; :等候,伺候; :外出(不在家中); :同途,路之中途也; 怀其实:喻道德才学; :qi粤读冀,屡次,时常;

我与:(等待);

Yang Huo wanted Confucius to see him.But Confucius would not want to.

He sent Confucius a sucking pig as present.Confucius chose a time to visit him in which he knew Yang Huo was not at home to express his gratitude. However they were met on the middle of the road.Yang Huo said to Confucius:Come I have something to say to you.

Yang Huo then asked:Can he be called virtuous if he keeps his talentshidden  and leaves his country in disarray?

Confucius said: Of course not.

Yang Huo then asked:Can he be called wise if he was longing for a position in the government yet again and again he misses the opportunity to do so?

Confucius said: Of course not.

Yang Huo then said:My days and months are gone,the year would not wait for me!

Confucius said:Right! I will be soon join in.

17.2:性相近也,习相远也.

本章言人性在先天相近,后天习染各别不同而远

老师说:人的本性,在先天秉赋上原是很相近的.由于后天各人习染的不同,就相去很远了.

:人之先天本性; :后天习染;

Confucius said:People are closely alike by nature.their custom(s) drift them far apart.

17.3:唯上知与下愚,不移.

本章言人之本性虽相近,但亦有上知和下愚之人.先天秉赋悬殊,非习染所可移易也.

老师说:只有上智和下愚的人,不是后天的习染和教育可以转移的.

上知,下愚:孔安国(子国,孔子第十二世孙,汉武帝时期的谏议大夫,临淮太守,):上知不可使为悪,下愚不可使为贤;

Confucius said:Only the wisest and the stupidest are unchangeable

N.B.this chapter is in conjunction with 17.2

17.4武城,闻弦歌之声,夫子莞尔而笑曰:割鸡焉用牛刀? …子游对曰:昔者也举诸夫子[君子学道则爱人,小人学道则易使也]…子曰:二三子!之言是也,前言戏之耳.

本章记孔子子游能实行圣门教化之道.参阅6.12

老师往武城,听到弦歌的声音,夫子微笑着说:杀鸡何需用上牛刀呢? …子游答道:以前我听到老师说过[在上位的人学道,就懂得爱护人民.庶民们学道,就容易听从教令];老师说:弟子们,(子游)讲得对啊,我刚才说的是对他开玩笑而已矣.

:往也; 武城:,子游武城; 弦歌之声:子游以礼乐教,故邑人皆以琴瑟弦歌也; 莞尔:微笑貌; 割鸡焉用牛刀:此喻治小邑何必用礼乐大道; :子游之名;

子游: 511-?姓言名偃,字子游,吴国人..仕鲁为武城宰.特习于礼,尤于文学着.列位孔门十哲(子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).

Confucius came to Wucheng,he heard the classic sound of strings and singings (the highest practice of the rite and music).With a gentle smile, Confucius humorously said:Why use an ox knife to kill a chicken?

Ziyou said:Master,Yan(Ziyou) remember you have once said, ‘A ruler who had learned the classic way of rite and music loves his people.The people who had  learned the classic way of rite and music are easy to rule’.

The master said:My disciples, Yan’s word is right! What I have said just now was only meant for joking.

17.5公山弗扰于费畔,,欲往.子路不说曰:末之也已!何必公山氏之之也!…:夫召我者,而岂徒哉?如有用我者,吾其为东周乎?

本章崔述{沫泗考信录}疑为伪托.弗扰叛时,孔子正为司冦,故认此章所记之事可疑孔子虽新任鲁司冦亦未必不去助平叛以复共东周荒礼禾,崔述之理亦有不确之处.

公山弗扰费邑叛变,派人来召,老师考虑想去.子路心中不悦:没有可去之处了么?又何必到公山氏那里去呢?…老师说:旣有人召我,难道只是不做甚么吗?如有人用我,我将行周道于东方啊.

之之:; 公山弗扰:史记中名为公山不狃,季氏家臣,他曾与阳货共谋反叛季氏,失败后逃往国之后再潜回据费邑以叛; :同叛; 末之也已:言无有可去了; :,传统bi,现在多读fei

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,东壁,幼有奇才,乾隆间举于乡,嘉庆间历知福建罗源,上杭诸县,有廉声.后乞归,以著述终老.之学以考证为主.不墨守旧说.无从考证者辄以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.着甚伙惟{考信录}最有名.

When Gongshan Furao seized Bei for rebellion, he sent for Confucius to come.Confucius inclined to go.Zilu was not happy and said:If you have no better place to go, that is all right.Why must go to assist Gongshan?

The master said:He has sent for me.Can it be of nothing? If anyone were to use me,I believe I can advocate a ‘Zhou in the East’

17.6子张问仁于孔子,孔子:[能行五者于天下为仁矣]请问之; …:,,,,. 恭则不侮,宽则得众,信则人任焉, 敏则有功,惠则足以使人.

本章记孔子指示子张为仁之五目.

子张问为仁之道.老师说:能表现出五种品德于天下,就可算仁了; …子张请问那五种品德.老师说:,,,,. 对人恭敬,就不会受到人的侮慢.待人宽厚,就可得到众人之心,与人信实,就可得到人的信赖.做事勤快,就容易成功.能常施恩惠给人,人多愿意为你効劳.

于天下:无往而不如此; :倚仗也;

Zizhang asked the master about the Perfect Virtue.

Confucius said:He who can put five things into practice everywhere under heaven would be a man of perfect virtue.Zizhang said:May I ask what are they?

Confucius said:Respectful,Generous,Honest,Fervent and Altruistic.

Respect prevents insults;Generosity wins everyone;Honesty gains trust; Fervency brings success; Altruism enjoys ample of reciprocity.

17.7佛肸(xi粤读日),欲往.子路:昔者闻诸夫子曰[亲于其身为不善者,君子不入也]佛肸中牟,子之往也,如之何? …:!有是言也,不曰坚乎?磨而不磷,不曰白乎?湼而不缁,吾岂匏瓜也哉?焉能系而不食?

本章崔述{沬泗考信录}亦以为伪托.[韩诗外传],佛肸中牟,其事在哀公二十年.孔子已卒五年,以证此事之不实.然则[韩诗外传]之载,未知有误否.

佛肸派人来召,老师考虑想去,子路:以前我听到老师说过[一个人本身做过不善之事的,君子不愿到他那里去],佛肸如今据着中牟叛变,老师去他

那里,这为什么呢?…老师说:是的,有这样的话,不也说过怎样才算是最坚硬的么?尽磨他也不损不薄,不也说过怎样才算是洁白的么?尽染他也不会黑.我难道是匏瓜吗?怎能老是挂着而不给人食呢?

佛肸:fu粤读,xi粤读日,字之本义笑声也,戴表元{翫月诗}:洗林问劳苦,天女笑肸肸;佛肸大夫范中行的家臣,中牟县宰.中牟亦为 赵简子之邑;赵简子进范氏,佛肸依据中牟来抵抗赵简子.中牟赵简子之邑,故称他叛也:中牟以叛氏也;然有记孔子晋赵简子却半途折返卫国.明朝<<石刻圣迹图:西河返驾>>,孔子卫国晋国,来到黄河边时听到窦鸣犊舜华死了.便对黄河叹息道:“美啊!浩浩荡荡的河水,我不能过河到晋国是命啊!窦鸣犊,舜华晋国贤良的大夫,赵简子未得志时候依靠这两个人,后来执掌政权便把他们杀了,鸟兽还知道避开不义的行为,何况人呢?!”于是就返回去了.

磨而不磷:/薄也,义磨之而不损不薄也;湼而不缁:染之而不黑;nie湼粤读聂;[矾石]一种黑色染料,zi缁粤读支/黑色,这两句比喻人之善性无可评论也;匏瓜:pao粤读刨,胡芦的一种,味苦,人所不食,剖开可做瓢盛食物,颜渊每餐只吃一箪一瓢; 中牟:国地名,故地在今河北 邢台邯郸之间;

子路: 子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,东壁,幼有奇才,乾隆间举于乡,嘉庆间历知福建罗源,上杭诸县,有廉声.后乞归,以著述终老.之学以考证为主.不墨守旧说.无从考证者辄以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.着甚伙.考信录最有名.

Bi Xi summoned the master. Confucius was inclined to go.Zilu said:I have heard master once said, ‘If a person is personally involved in some evil deeds,no righteous person would enter his area’. Since Bi Xi had seized Zhongniu in revolt.If you go to him.What does that mean?

Confucius said:True,I have said so.but is it not also said if a thing is really hard,no grinding can make it thin.Is itnot also said if is really white,,no steeping can make it black?! Am I just a bitter gourd? How can I be only fit for hanging and notfor consuming?

17.8:,闻六言六蔽矣乎?…对曰:未也; …“,吾语女.好仁不好学,蔽也愚;好知,蔽也荡; 好信不好学,蔽也贼;好直不好学,蔽也绞;好勇不好学,蔽也乱;好刚不好学,蔽也狂;”

本章孔子子路六种只好而不学的弊病.

老师说:仲由!你听说过六种品德也有六种弊病么?…子路:没有;…老师说:坐下!我告诉你,喜好仁德而不喜好学问,它的弊病是容易被人愚弄的;喜好聪明而不喜好学问,它的弊病是放荡; 喜好诚实而不喜好学问,它的弊病是贼害了自己,喜好率直而不喜好学问,它的弊病是因说话尖刻而每每扭结不通; 喜好勇敢而不喜好学问,它的弊病是捣乱惹祸; 喜好刚强而不喜好学问,它的弊病是轻率狂妄.

:子路; :同汝(); :坐也; :告也; :放荡不知归结; :害也; :急切也; :违法犯上; :狂妄而抵触别人;

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Confucius said:Zhong You(Zilu) have you heard of the six merits and their six respective demerits(for people who hate to learn)?

Zilu:No sir.

Confucius said:Stay,let me tell you.

Benevolent people hate learning make them imbecile

Wise people hate learning make them debauched.

Honest people hate learning make them vulnerable

Frank people hate learning trussed themselves up.

Fortitudinous people hate learning are arrogantly wild.

17.9 :小子!何莫学夫诗? ,可以兴,可以观,可以羣,可以怨; 迩之事父,远之事君,多识于鸟兽草木之名.

本章告弟子学诗之益.

老师说:弟子们,何不去学诗呢? ,可以激发人的情志,可以考察政风的得失,可以在通达时和悦于羣众,可以在否塞时舒发愤懑.近的,可以知道如何侍奉父母.远的,可以知道如何事奉国君.还可多知道记取鸟兽草木的名称.

:感发情志; :考察得失; :通诗可以合羣; :否塞可以舒懑; :近也; :记也.

Confucius said:My disciples,Why do you not study the Book of Poetry?The Odes can help you to stimulate the mind.to broaden the view for a better judgement. They can teach you the art sociability and let you know how to  demonstrate your chagrin.They may be used closely at home in the service of your parents;outside afar, in the service of your prince. Moreover, they will widen your acquaintance with the names of birds,beasts,plants and trees

17.10伯鱼:女为周南召南矣乎?人而不为周南召南,其犹正墙面而立也与?

本章记孔子告儿言学诗可以使眼光远大.

老师对伯鱼:你学过诗中周南召南了么? …一个人如不去学周南召南,他就像面对墙在站着的啊!(面前蔽塞,眼光不广不远)

:同汝(); :学也; 正墙面而立:言所见蔽塞不远;

伯鱼:孔子之子..伯鱼.生时,鲁昭公以鲤赐孔子,名与字皆缘于此.

[周南][召南]:诗经国风首一,二篇名,这两篇写的是周南召南两地区江汉流域一带的民歌;

Confucius asked his son Boyu:Have you studied  {Zhou Nan}and{Shao Nan}yet? A person who has not studied {Zhou Nan}and{Shao Nan} will be like though he is standing,but facing right in front of  a wall!

17.11:礼云礼云,玉帛云乎哉?乐云乐云,钟鼓云乎哉?

本章言礼主敬,不在虚文.

老师说:礼么礼么,岂是说这些玉帛物品吗? 乐么乐么,岂是说钟鼓这些乐器吗?

玉帛:玉帛属之礼品;

Confucius said:Ritual!Ritual! Are jade and silk meant to be what Ritual is all about? Music!Music! Are bells and drums meant to be what Music is all about?

17.12:色厉而内荏,譬诸如小人,其犹穿窬之盗也与?

本章言小人表里不一,欺世盗名.

老师说:外表很威严,内心实很懦弱的人,犹如那些小人,他好比穿凿墙洞做小偷的不光明呢.

色厉:表面威严; 内荏:ren荏粤读任,内实懦弱; 穿窬:yyu窬粤读俞,凿墙洞,鼠辈小偷之为也;

Confucius said:He who looks awesome but a scarecrow inside. Similar to a small man like a thief chisels a hole in the wall to crawl in to steal.

17.13:乡原,德之贼也.

本章责乡愿,为盗德之贼.参阅13.24

老师说:乡愿(一乡中任何人都不得罪的,不辨是非随处讨好人的老好人),这人是盗德之贼啊!

乡原:谓乡人之貌为谨愿者(原与愿).乡愿者,一乡皆称善,而其忠信廉洁,皆是假托.{中论考正伪}:乡愿亦无杀人之罪也,仲尼深悪之.参阅13.24

Confucius said:Xiang Yuan The meticulously obsequious villager,(who is being fond of by every single person in the village),damages the spirit of virtue.

17.14:道听而涂说,德之弃也.

本章言不辨真伪,人云亦云者,缼德也.

老师说:在街头听到了,就在路上说出去,人云亦云,漫无是非,这是道德中所该抛弃的.

道听涂说:把在街头听到(从网上看到的流言蜚语)说出去,不在乎其真假,但求哗众取宠.

Confucius said:To spread what you have heard on the way,is to abandon virtue.

17.15:鄙夫可与事君也与哉?其未得之也,患得之;旣得之,患失之;苟患失之,无所不至矣.

本章言鄙夫患得患失,必无忠君爱国之心.

老师说:一个卑鄙小人,可和他共同事君吗? 在没得到富贵时,忧虑着如何能得到.旣然得到了,又忧虑着唯恐失掉.若是忧虑怕失掉,那么什么事都做得出来了啊!

鄙夫:庸俗无行之人; 无所不至:言人欲富贵,则无所不为;

Confucius said: How can one serve the prince together with those despicable characters? When they have not got it(fame and fortune)yet,they worry how to get it. When they have got it, they worry again of losing it.In their worrisome duration of minding it,they will act unscuprously to secure it.

17.16:古者民有三疾;,今也或是之亡也.古之狂也肆,今之狂也荡.古之矜也廉,今之矜也忿戾;古之愚也直,今之愚也诈而已矣.

本章言古人虽有偏短之病,今人犹不如古人也.

老师说:古时人有三种缺点,如今的人或者这缺点已没有了:古人狂而不拘小节,今人狂而放荡越礼了; 古人矜庄而廉隅不苟取,今人矜庄过分变成蛮横无礼;古人愚昧之中还保持正直.今人愚昧反而变成奸诈妄为了.

三疾:三种偏短之病:,,; 狂诨肆:志大而不拘小节; 忿戾:易怒好争; :原指器物的棱角,这里是厉害的意思

Confucius said:Those three kinds of common defects for the people in the olden days,perhaps are now extinct.

The wildness of the olden days was the unrestraint.The wildness of nowadays is its dissipation of virtue.

The pride of the olden days constituted a concept of conceited  inactivity, The pride of nowadays is a sense of actin  Contentiously cantankerous.

The foolishness of the olden days was its bluntness.The foolishness of nowadays is its feint.

17.17:巧言令色,鲜矣仁!

本章言佞人不仁. 此章重出,首列学而篇1.3

老师说:说讨好话,装出讨喜欢的脸色,这种人的仁德是很少的.

巧言:花言巧语; 令色:装出讨喜欢的脸色;

Confucius said:Flattery and obsequious manner are scarce of virtue.

17.18:悪紫之夺朱也;悪郑声之乱雅乐也;悪利口之覆邦家者.

本章言以邪乱正也.

老师说:我可恶那些紫色侵夺了红的正色,可恶那郑声淆乱了正乐,可恶那张利口颠覆了邦家的人.

:红而兼黑者; :红之正色; 郑声:邪淫之乐; 利口:有口才无是非;

Confucius said:I hate to see purple deprived red of its postion and replace its luster.I hate to hear the singings of Zheng corrupting the Classic Music of the court.I hate those glib tongue sycophannt ruin a kingdom.

17.19:予欲无;…子贡:子如不言,则小子何述焉? …子曰:天何言哉?四时行焉,百物生焉,天何言哉?

本章言天理自然流行,不言而着,贵在自悟.

老师说:不想再说什么了[人不可徒于言语上求道,须知道在默悟];…子贡:老师如不说,那第子们拿什么来传述呢?……老师说:天说了些什么?四时不断地自然流行,百物自然地生长, 天说了些什么?

:传述也;

Confucius said:I wish to relate no more.

Zigong asked:If master relate no more, how may the disciple record your discourse?

The master said:When does heaven relate?four seasons are progressing orderly.All things are yielding continuously.What has heaven related indeed?!

17.20孺悲欲见孔子,孔子辞以疾.将命者出户,取瑟而歌,使之闻之.

本章记孔子不欲见孺悲,崔述{洙泗考信录}又说此章可疑,论其事如同儿戏,又谓圣人不该如此,所以认为是传人之误也.相反也有疏曰此章盖孔子疾恶也.

孺悲要求会见孔子.孔子以病推辞,传达这话的人出房门,孔子就取出瑟来歌唱.使孺悲听到.(知孔子的心意,不再求见了)

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,东壁,幼有奇才,乾隆间举于乡,嘉庆间历知福建罗源,上杭诸县,有廉声.后乞归,以著述终老.之学以考证为主.不墨守旧说.无从考证者辄以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.着甚伙.考信录最有名.

孺悲:,尝学士丧礼于孔子;

将命者:传达话的人;

Ru Bei wanted to see the master.

Confucius declined his request under the pretext of illness.When the servant was leaving the door to deliver the message,Confucius took out his Zither and sang with it deliberately to allow his servant to hear him.

17.21 宰我:三年之丧,期已久矣! 君子三年不为礼,礼必坏;三年不为乐,乐必崩.旧谷旣没,新谷旣升,钻燧改火,期可已矣; …:食夫稻,衣夫锦,于女安乎?…:!…女安则为之!夫君子之居丧,食旨不甘,闻乐不乐,居处不安,故不为也.今女安,则为之! …宰我,:予之不仁也!子生三年,然后免于父母之怀,三年之丧,天下之通丧也.予也有三年之爱于其父母乎?

本章论不可改短守三年父母之丧.

宰我:为父母守丧三年,一年已经很久了!君子三年不习礼,礼就要败坏,三年不习乐,乐就要衰废.像陈谷已吃完,新谷已经登场.钻木取火已改换木头,守丧一年,也就可以终止了; …老师说:居在丧中吃好米饭,穿着锦绣衣服,你能安心吗? …宰我:安心! …老师说:你能安心,你就做吧!一般君子守丧,吃着美味的东西,不觉得好吃,听着音乐,也不感到快乐,日常起居,心里总觉得不安.所以不愿这样做.在你认为心安,那你就做好了! …宰我退出以后,老师说:宰我真是个没有仁心的人啊.儿女出生三年,然后才能离开父母的怀抱,这三年的丧礼,是天下通行的丧礼.!曾有过三年的爱心对已死去的父母过吗?

:周年也; :败坏也; :坠失; 没尽也; :新谷登场也; 钻燧改火:古人钻木取火,随四时改易; :美味也; :离也;

宰我:,子我,也称宰我,国人.宰予口齿伶俐,能说善辩,被列为孔门四科十哲(言语科)之一.孔子常派遣他出使各国,使于齐”,“使于楚.宰予遇事有自己的主见.

Zai Wu queried:Three-year-mourning,duration is too long.If people suspend their practice of propriety for three years the propriety will corrupt.If they stop playing music for three years, the music(bells and drums) will crack. Now old grain already vanished,the new grain has sprung up,even the drilling woods for starting fires are adjusted.Surely that is happening all but in one year.

Confucius said:Eating good rice, wearing silk brocades, Would you feel comfortable in it?

Zai Wo said:Yes,I am comfortable of that

The master said:If you are comfortable,do it then.

But a superior man when in mourning,doest not enjoy pleasant food,he can not find pleasure from music.Even when he is at ease  staying at home, he does not feel comfortable.That is why he chose to abandon these things.But now since you are comfortable,you may do it.

Zai Wo left,Confucius said:What a man of no heart! A child born three years,hence leave the arms of parent.The three years mourning is accepted anywhere beneath heaven.I wonder if Yu (Zai Wo)would have a heart for his deceased parents lasting three years long?!

17.22 :饱食终日,无所用心,难矣哉!不有博弈者乎?为之,犹贤乎已!

本章言人之终日无所用心极为不可.,需有所用也.

老师说:吃饱了饭,自早至晚,没有一件事肯去用心,真是难有成德可能了!不是有着局戏和围棋的么?如能在这些上用点心,也比较好些啊!

:掷骰子局戏; :围棋也;:胜也;

Confucius said:Satiated for the whole day,with an idle mind all the time,appalling indeed!Have there not some games of dice and chess? Playing that is even better.

17.23 子路:君子尚勇乎? …:君子义以为上.君子有勇而无义为乱.小人有勇而无义为盗.

本章言君子尚义,君子有勇必有义也.

子路问道:君子重视勇吗?…老师说:君子以义为最重要,君子有勇而无义就变为乱,小人有勇而无义就变为盗了.

尚义:以义为上也;

子路: 子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九岁, (孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粤),以为邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬竖良夫谋立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粤,瞶本字义眼昏如瞎,例句如聋如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Zilu asked:Do superior men have great esteem for boldness?

Confucius said:A superior man esteems righteousness the greatest.In the absence of righteousness,He would be although brave but bewildered. Whereas a mean but brave person because in lack of righteousness,is a robber without question.

17.24子贡:君子亦有悪乎? …:有悪.悪称人之悪者,悪居下流而讪上者,悪勇而无礼者,悪果敢而窒者; …:赐也亦有悪乎? …悪徼以为知者,恶不孙以为勇者,悪讦以为直者.

本章记孔子所悪的是真小人,子贡所悪的是伪君子.

子贡:君子也有厌悪的人么? …师说:有厌悪的.厌悪说别人坏话的人,厌悪在下位毁谤在他上位的人,厌悪有勇气而不合乎礼的人.厌悪有果敢精神而不通事理的人; …老师反问道:赐啊!你也有厌悪的人么? …子贡:我厌恶暗地里抄袭人而自以为智的人.厌恶不谦逊而自以为勇敢的人,厌恶揭发别人的私隐而自以为正直的人.

居下流:指居下位的;:毁谤也; :不通事理; :抄袭也; :攻发人之隐私;

子贡:端木赐卫国人.(贡本作赣),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子贡有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于.

Zigong asked:Is there hatred in the heart of a superior man?

Confucius said: There are hatreds in him.He hates calnumniators who spread evils on others.He hates those inferiors who like to slander their superiors,he hates those who are bluntly bold but ignorant with the rules of propriety,he hates those who are consistent but obstinate.Ci(Zigong),do you also have hatreds?

Zigong replied:I hate plagiarizers who are claiming to be intelligent,I hate those who claim to be brave because of not acting humble themselves,I hate those who like to expose and criticize peoples’ faults to suggest that they are righteous themselves.

17.25:唯女子与小人为难养也.近之则不逊,远之则怨.

本章言家中的婢和仆,不易对待他们.

师说:只有家中的婢仆难以对待了.亲近一点就会对你不谦逊起来.疏远一些,就会对你怨恨起来.

女子与小人:指家中的婢女和仆人;

Confucius said:I am afraid only maids and male-servants (domestic helpers) are difficult to be acquainted with.Staying too close, you will lose their respects on you. Staying too far, they will have chagrin on you.

17.26:年四十而见悪焉,其终也已.

本章勉人当及时修德也.

师说:活到四十岁还被人憎悪,他这一生就没希望了.

has reached his forty and still being dislike by others,he will be disliked by for the rest of his life.

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