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季氏 第十六篇  

2011-08-09 16:21:20|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译季氏 第十六篇 共十四章

 

季氏 第十六篇 共十四章

16.1 季氏将伐颛臾.冉有,季路,见于孔子:季氏将有事于颛臾; …孔子曰:!无乃尔是过与?颛臾,昔者先王以为东蒙主,且在邦域之中矣,是社稷之臣也,何以伐为? …冉有曰:夫子欲之,吾二臣者,皆不欲也; …孔子曰:!周任有言曰[陈力就列,不能者止]危而不持,颠而不扶,则将焉用彼相矣?且尔言过矣!虎兕出于柙,龟玉毁于椟中,是谁之过与? …冉有:今夫颛臾固而近于费,今不取,后世必为子孙忧; …孔子:!君子疾夫舍曰欲之而必为之辞.也闻有国有家者,不患寡而患不均,不患贫而患不安; 盖均无贫,和无寡,安无倾.夫如是,故远人不服,则修文德以来之;旣来之,则安之.也相夫子.远人不服而不能来也,邦分崩离析而不能守也.而谋动干戈于邦内,吾恐季孙之忧,不在颛臾而在萧墙之内也.

本章三百三十二字,孔子,训弟子.后期孔夫子冉有孔门参阅11.15;…旣来之,则安之典故出自此章也!

季氏将攻伐颛臾.冉有子路来见孔子,冉有:季氏将要出兵攻打颛臾;…老师说:!未免就是你的过啦? 颛臾,是先王封东蒙的主祭者,而且国境以内,是国家的属臣,为什么要攻伐他呢? …冉有:这是季孙的意思,我们两个家臣都不想这样做啊! …老师说:! 周任以前说过,“贡献你的力量,参与百官的行列,若不胜任,就该辞退”,如助弱视者,如临着危险不去扶持,快要跌倒不去抱住,那何必用这[]做什么呢?(字形义以木与助目也);况且你说错了!好比老虎和野牛从棚栏里跑掉,龟和玉在匣子里坏掉了,这不是管理人的失职,还有谁的过失吗? …冉有说:如今的颛臾,城郭坚固,又近在季氏,现在不攻取他,将留给后代子孙之忧;…老师说:!君子所厌恶的是私心里想要,表面还借口掩饰他.我听人讲过,一个诸侯之国,或者卿大夫之家,不愁民户少,只愁财富怕不平均.不愁人民穷,只愁大家不能相安.因为财富平均,就没有贫穷.大家和谐就不觉民户少.大家相安就不怕国家倾覆.做到这样,如果远方的不归附,就整顿礼乐文教以招徕他们.旣来到我们国家以内,就要好好地安置他们.如今,辅助季氏大夫,远方人不归附,你们也不设法招徕他们,邦家要分离瓦解,你们也不能好好地把守着,反而想在邦家之内动起干戈来,我怕季孙的忧虑不在颛臾,而在自家的屏风之内吧!

颛臾:国之附庸国,在今山东费县西; 有亊:有攻伐之事; 东蒙:蒙山,在今山东 蒙阴县; 社稷之臣:国家之属臣; 夫子:季康子; 周任:古代著名史官; 陈力就列:贡献出力量担任职务; :古时扶助瞽者之人称[],这里指助手; 虎兕出于柙:si兕粤读,雌犀牛也,xia柙粤读,囚兽笼; :du椟粤读,大柜也; : bi费粤读庇,季氏之封邑; 不患而患不均,不患而患不安:此两句[][]掉换,则较宜为接下文; 舍曰欲之:实是私心欲之而藉词掩饰; 干戈:战事;萧墙之内:萧墙,大门内的屏风,之内,季孙之家事也;

The chief of the Ji clan was planning to invade Zhuanyu. Ran You and Zilu came to see Confucius to inform him:the head of the Ji family will find disputes with Zhuanyu.

The master said:Qiu(Ran You)is it not you who are taking part in the intrigue? Zhuanyu was long ago appointed by the former king to preside over the sacrifices to the mount Dongmeng .Moreover it lies within the boundary of our state,and it is a satellite city of ours who is also one of a state ministers.Why are you going to invade them?

Ran You said:The Ji clan  wishes so; neither of us two ministers wants to do it.

The master said:Qiu(Ran You)there are the words of Zhou Ren,he who can put forth his ability takes his place in the ranks of office;he who cannot must then retires from it.One  who sees him in danger,but does not save  him, sees him falling ,but does not  prop him up? What else is helpful can we expect from such a assistant..Moreover your excuse is not genuine.When a tiger or a buffalo escapes from its cage,when a tortoise shell or jade is broken in its box,whose fault is it?(connotation:watchers’keepers’fault,not owners’)

Ran You said:Now Zuanyu is strongly fortified and is close to Bei(Ji clns' territory),if it is not taken today, in days to come it will certainly bring trouble to our sons and grandsons.

Confucius said:Qiu(Ran You)a superior man hates those who hide their desires of greed and make excuses to rationalize it’. Qiu(Confucius ) have heard that rulers of states and chiefs of clans are not trouble that should their people become fewer,but troubled if there is disparity among them;they are not troubled about poverty,but are troubled if the people not living at ease;if all are well apportioned, there will be no poverty; if they are in harmony, there will be no decline in population;if stability reigns, there will be no danger of collapse. If all these are done, and yet the people of far off lands still do not submit,then the ruler should attract them by encouraging ritual and music.If already they have come to reside,just let them live at ease.

Now,here are you two,You(Zilu)and Qiu(Ran you),both assisting your chief of Ji , the people of far lands do not submit to him, and he cannot attract them to come.In his own state there are divisions and tottery,disruption and cleft,but he cannot save it. And yet he is planning to use military forces within the border of his own land.I am afraid that the troubles of the Ji family will not rise in Zuanyu,they will rise within the walls of his own court yard.     

16.2孔子:天下有道,则礼乐征伐自天子出.天下无道, 则礼乐征伐自诸侯出, 自诸侯出.盖十世希不失矣.自大夫出,五世希不失矣;陪臣执国命,三世希不失矣.天下有道,则政不在大夫.天下有道,则庶人不议.

本章言国家的权势控之所在,可定它的存亡.

老师说:天下有道时,一切礼乐征伐的事,都从天子那里决定,天下无道时, 礼乐征伐的事,就在诸侯身上决定发出.那么这样的天下传十代后很少会不亡的了,如果从大夫发出(号令),这样的国家传五代后很少会不亡的,如果大夫家臣把持号令, 国家传三代后很少会不亡的了.天下有道时,政权不会落在大夫手.天下有道时,人民不会去议论政治的.

礼乐征伐自天子出:古时非天子不得变礼乐,专征伐; 希少也; 陪臣:家臣也; 政不在大夫:大夫不可以专政; 庶人不议:人民不去私议政治的好;

Confucius said:If the world were in order, ceremonies of rite and music,as well as military affairs would be controlled by the the Son of Heaven(anthropomorphism:Emperor). If the world were out of order, ceremonies of rite and music,as well as military affairs would be  controlled by various vassals.

If orders were under the control of vassals, the dynasty could hardly last for ten generations. If the orders were under the control of state ministers, the dynasty could hardly last longer than five generations.If the fate of the dynasty were control by the retainers of the state minister, the dynasty could hardly last longer than three generations.

When the world is in proper order, power will not lie with the state ministers.

When the world is in propler order, common people will not discuss politics.

16.3孔子:禄之去公室五世矣!政逮于大夫四世矣!故夫三桓之子孙微矣!

本章言公室微弱,政在大夫手.

老师说:乏爵禄赏罚不从君出,已有五世了.政令落在大夫手里,已有四代了.所以三桓的子孙,目前也衰微了.

禄之去公室:爵禄赏罚之权不在国君之手; 五世:指鲁室,,,,五公, 四世:季孙文子,武子,平子,桓子四代; 三桓:仲孙,叔孙,季孙三家皆岀自鲁桓公; 三家至定公时皆衰.

Confucius said:The royal privilege has had left the ducal ducal house of Lu for five generations already.The government has been in the hands of the ministers for four generations already.hence a debilitating development for the descendants of the three Huan()Ji clan).

16.4 孔子:益者三友,损者三友; [友直,友谅,友多闻,益矣;友便辟,友善柔,友便佞,损矣.]

本章言人当择友而交.

老师说:有益的朋友有三种,有害的朋友也有三种.正直的人,信实的人,博学多闻的人,和他们交往都有益的.惯于逢迎不诚的人,于献媚不信实的人,口才善辩, 颠倒是非的人,和他们交往是有的了.

:正直; :诚信; 便辟:善于花言巧; 善柔:善于献媚讨好; 便佞;习于谄辩颠倒是非sophistry;

Confucius said:Wholesome friends there are three,harmful friends, there arethree.

Straight forward,honest,erudite.these are beneficial friends.

Specious talker,insinuating,obsequious,these are harmful friends.

16.5 孔子:益者三*,者三*;*乐节礼乐,*乐道人之善,*乐多贤友,益矣;*乐骄乐,*乐佚游,*乐宴乐,损矣.

本章论人心爱好之益与损.

老师说:有益于人的三种喜好, 有损害于人的三种喜好:爱好节制礼乐,爱好称道别人的善处,爱好多交贤友,这就有益了; 爱好奢侈骄纵为乐,爱好闲散游荡,爱好宴会荒淫, 这就有害了.

*:yao读肴音调6-,爱好; 节礼乐:调节适度,不失中和的礼乐; 骄乐:以奢侈骄纵为乐; 佚游:闲散游荡没有节制; 宴乐:沈溺于过度宴会之乐;

Confucius said:There are three sorts of advantageous pleasure,three sorts of harmful pleasure.

The pleasure of being adjusted by the rite and music,the pleasure of praising the credits of others and the pleasure of making lots of worthy friends.These are beneficial pleasures.

Pleasure of extravagant vainglory,pleasure of idle gadding, the pleasure of Epicureanism,these are harmful pleasures

16.6孔子:侍于君子有三愆:言未及之,谓之躁;言及之而不,谓之隐,未见颜色,谓之瞽.

本章言人当适时言也.

老师说:奉侍君子时容易犯的三种过失,说话没轮到他就抢着先说,这就叫做轻躁,该他说的时候不他不说,这就叫做隐匿,不看清对方的面色而轻率的发言,这等于瞎了眼睛.

:qian读牵,过失;:zao读醋,性急也;:gu读鼓,瞎人;

Confucius said:There are three common mistakes when talking to a superior man.To speak before your turn. This is rashness.You should have talked and yet you did not speak, this is concealing,you speak but fail to observe his countenance, this is called blindness.

16.7孔子:君子有三戒:少之时,血气未定,戒之在色;及其壮也,血气方刚,戒之在鬪;及其老也,血气旣衰,戒之在得.

本章言君子自少至老所应戒慎之事.

老师说:君子有三种应戒慎的事:年少时血气没定,应戒慎在色欲上,到年壮时,血气正当刚强,应戒慎在争斗上,到血气已经衰退,应戒慎在贪得上.

血气:言人之精力志气; :女色;

Confucius said:superior man has three precautions.

At adolescent period,as both physical and mental strength is not yet settled, watch out for lust.Reaching the meridian stage while energy is at the vigorous condition, watch out for contentious incidents.Old age finally,mind and body at a feeble stage, watch out for the desire to achieve.

16.8孔子:君子有三畏:畏天命,畏大人,畏圣人之言. 小人不知天命而不畏也,狎大人,侮圣人之.

本章言君子与小人敬慢不同.

老师说:君子有三种敬畏:敬畏天命,敬畏君上,敬畏圣人的话; 小人不知甚么是天命所以无所敬畏了,轻忽君上,戏慢圣人的话.

:敬畏也;天命:天地间自然之正理,其不可变易若命令然也; 大人:君上居高位者; :亲昵怠忽; :轻慢之义;

Confucius said:A superior man has three fears.He fears the will of heaven. He fears the big ruler. He fears those words of sages.So the people who do not know the will of heaven have no fear for it.Those do not fear the ruler do not respect him,they would even insult the words of the sages.

16.9孔子:生而知之者,上也;学而知之者,次也;困而学知之,又其次也,困而不学,民斯为下矣.

本章言人之气质不同,秉赋各异,儆勉困而不学之人.

老师说:天生能领悟道理的人,那是上等资质的人, 经后天学习而知道的是次一等的人,受到困顿方知要学的是再次一等的人,受到困顿仍不想学的是最下等的了.

生而知之:天赋强记亿力及求知欲强的人; :困顿不通;

Confucius said:Best are those who are born with knowledge.Next are those who possess knowledge by learning.Then come the the next group who only start to learn when they were puzzled.As to those who do not learn even when they feel puzzled , they are lowest of the people. 

16.10孔子:君子有九思:视思明,听思聪,色思温,貌思恭,言思忠,事思敬,疑思,忿思难,见得思义.

本章言君子对言行视听皆随时九思省察是否合乎礼义.

老师说:君子对自己有九种省察之道:看要明白,听要清楚,面色要温和,态度要谦恭,说话要忠实,做事要认真,疑惑要查究询,忿怒要想到事后的祸患,遇到有利可得,要顾及是否合理应得.

九思:九种省察; :认识清楚,而无所蔽; :清晰无所含混; :面色温和; :患难,后患; 见得:遇到利益所得.

Confucius said:A superior man has nine reminders.

Remind Seeing has to be clear,hearing has to be astute,countenance has to be benignant,manner has to be respectful,words have to be sincere,working has to be diligent,doubts must have explanations, anger must be reminded of its consequences,when he sees profit,he is reminded of righteousness.

16.11孔子:见善如不及,见不善如探汤,吾见其人矣,吾闻其语矣.隐居以求其志,行义以达其道,吾闻其语矣,未见其人也.

本章言善人不易见也.

老师说: [看到好的事情,就惟恐赶不上似的.看到不好的事情,就像手探到热汤水的赶快避开] 我看到过这种人,也听过这种话.[隠居起来以求全自己的向道的心志,入世行义以求推行大道之德]我听到过这种话,但没有看见过这种人!

如不及:如不及别人之善行也; 如探汤:如手伸进沸水;

16.12 {不以富,亦祇以异.}齐景公有马千驷,死之日,民无德而称焉.伯夷 叔齐,饿于首阳之下,民到于今称之.其斯之谓与?

本章言人不贵其富,而贵其德也.此章首二句乃程子[诗经]句子颜渊崇德辨惑章末之二句{不以富,亦祇以异.}参阅12.10

[诗经上说]赞扬别人实不因为富有,只因他的德行异于常人; …齐景公有马一千驷,到他死时,人民对他没有什么可称道的. 伯夷 叔齐穷极饿死在首阳山,人民直到如今还称赞他.就是这样的说法吧?

首阳:山名;

伯夷 叔齐:二位殷商民助后退隐,拒食粟而饿死首阳山.

Eminency is not valued by its wealth.It is valued by its unique achievement.

Duke Jing of Qi had a thousand chariots of four-steeds each.But on the day of his death,people could think of not a single matter to praise his virtue for.

Boyi and Shuqi died of hungar at the foot of Shouyang mountain,yet the people praise them down to this very day.Is not the saying illustrated by this?

16.13陈亢伯鱼:子亦有异闻乎? …对曰:未也,尝独立,趋而过庭,:学诗乎?…对曰:未也; …“不学诗,无以退而学诗.他日又独立,趋而过庭,:学礼乎? …对曰:未也; “不学礼,以立退而学礼. …闻斯二者;…陈亢退而喜曰:一得三:闻诗,闻礼,又闻君子之远其子也.

本章记孔子教人,本无偏私.

陈亢问于伯鱼:你有没有听到特别的秘传呢? …答道:没有啊.父亲有一次单独站在那里,我赶快跑过庭间(意若顽童闪避父亲视线),父亲问:读诗了没有? …我说:没有; …父亲说:不学诗,不懂怎样说话; 于是我退回学诗去了;…另外有一天,父亲又是单独一人站在那里,我赶快跑到他庭前,父亲:学礼了没有? …我说:没有; …父亲说:不学礼,不能立身处事; …于是我退下学礼去了; 父亲单独对我说的,就只有这两项; …陈亢退下很高兴地说:问了一项,而得到三项.听到应该学诗,听到应该学礼,又听到君子对他的儿子也无偏私的秘传.

陈亢:511-430子元,一字子禽,又名原亢,小孔子40. (安徽蒙城县).大夫陈子车.孔子弟子,77位弟子中名列第68.曾做过单父(山东单县南)宰.陈亢为宰时,施德政于民,颇受后人好评.其兄死,反对家人殉葬.

伯鱼:孔子之子..伯鱼.生时,鲁昭公以鲤赐孔子,名与字皆缘于此.

:异乎弟子们之所异,即秘传之意;

尝独立:曾经独自一人立着,左右无人在场;

趋而过庭:赶快地跑过庭间;

远其子:对自己的儿子亦无偏私独厚也;

Cheng Kang asked Boyu(son of confucius):Have you heard any lessons different from what we have heard?

Boyu replied: No,once my father was standing alone in the court yard, I walked past him hurrily,and he asked me: Have you learned poems?

I answered no and he said:If you do not study poems,you will have no words to say.So I went back to study poems.Another day my father was again standing alone and as I ran across the court yard,he asked me:Have you studied the rules of propriety?

I answered no and my father said:If you do not study the rules of propriety,there is no place for you to stand.

I went back to study the rules of propriety.These were the two things I heard from my father.

Cheng Kang went away delightfully saying:I asked one thing ,but got three things.I have heard about poems, I have heard about the rules of propriety and I have also heard the superior man keeps his son at a distance.

16.14 邦君之妻,君称之曰[夫人],夫人自称曰[小童],邦人称之曰[君夫人],称诸异邦曰[寡小君],异邦人称之亦曰[君夫人.]

本章说君夫人之称谓.崔述东壁(1740-1816)[沫泗考信录]疑本章为后人羼入{论语},恐是错简.

国君之妻,君称她为[夫人],她自称为[小童],国人称她为[君夫人],对他国自称本国国君之妻为[寡小君],他国人称他国的国君之妻,也称她为[君夫人]

:chan粤读粲,义谗杂.

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,东壁,幼有奇才,乾隆间举于乡,嘉庆间历知福建罗源,上杭诸县,有廉声.后乞归,以著述终老.之学以考证为主.不墨守旧说.无从考证者辄以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.着甚伙.考信录最有名.

The wife of a prince of a state is called by the prince Madam.The wife  would call herself Junior-child.The people of the state would call her Prince-madam,however they will call other states’ as Unique Junior Prince.

Other states people would also call Prince madam.

N.B.some scholars suggested that this chapter is irrelevant to the analects of Confucius.
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