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卫灵公 第十五篇  

2011-08-09 18:58:20|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论语浅译卫灵公 第十五篇 共四十

卫灵公 第十五篇 共四十

15.1卫灵公问陈于孔子,孔子对曰:俎豆之事,则尝闻之矣,军旅之事,未之学也;…明日遂行,绝粮,从者病,莫能兴,子路愠见曰:君子亦有穷乎? …子曰:君子固穷,小人穷斯温矣!

本章记孔子固穷行道,不为环境左右.

卫灵公孔子关于兵阵的事.孔子答道:关于祭祀礼制上的事,我会听到过,至于军旅的事,却没有学过; 翌日孔子师徒等人便走了.走到,断了粮食,从行的弟子们都饿坏了,站不起来,子路心里发怒,来见夫子,:有道的君子也会穷困么?…老师说:君子固守其穷,小人穷时,便无所不.

明朝<<石刻圣迹图:灵公问阵>>:鲁哀公二年(493)孔子国返回.卫灵公孔子询问军阵.孔子:“军事上的事,我没有学过”.第二天,卫灵公孔子谈话时,灵公抬头看着天上的飞雁.孔子卫灵公心思不在自己身上. 于是离开又回到.

又据明朝<<石刻圣迹图:在陈绝粮>>:国派人来聘请,孔子答应前去.国和国的大夫商议道:“孔子国任用,国和国就危险了.”因此便派兵围困孔子众人.粮食吃完了,弟子们病倒了,不能前行.孔子却一直弹琴唱歌.后来子贡楚昭王派兵来迎接.孔子等人才免除了灾难.

:同阵,言列阵作战之事; 俎豆:zu俎粤读阻,宗庙所用祭祀的礼器; :起来; :怒也; 固穷:固守穷困; :如水之泛滥,不循轨道而行;

卫灵公:姬姓,卫氏,(?-493)国第28代国君, 534-493年在位.(卫襄公之子,卫后庄公之父,卫出公之祖父).灵公是著名昏君,其爱屠好男宠,多猜忌,脾气暴躁,但是,他擅长知人,用人.参阅14.19

Duke Ling of Wei asked Confucius about tactics on warefares.Confucius replied:Of sacricial rites ,I have learned.I have not studied military matters.

Confucius left Wei the next day.In Chen,run out of food.Some followers were sick and some were even too weak to rise up.Seeing the situation Zilu said with flurry of angrish:Has even a superior man been in such predicament of in need?

Confucius said:Superior person endures poverty.Whereas the mean one would seek unscrupulously all sorts of indiscriminate ways to get out of it.

15.2:,女以予为多学而识之者与?对曰:!非与;:非也!予一以贯之.

本章训学问当提纲挈领,不要泥于细碎问题.

老师说:! 你以为我是个博学疆记的人么? …子贡回答:是的,难道不是吗? …老师说:不是的,我是以一理贯通众理的.

:同汝(); :同志,记也; 一予贯之:以一根本原理axiom推演众理也;

:qie挈粤读揭,举起也.

: 端木,国人.(贡本作赣),.孔子弟十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌以存.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于齐.

Confucius said:Oh Ci!(Zigong),do you think that I have learned a lot and kept them all in memory?

Zigong said: Sure,is it not so?

Confucius said:Not so, they are merely a constitution of one principle.

15.3:,知德者鲜矣!

本章言知德之人难得.

老师说:!知道道德可贵的人,太少了!

:少也;

:子路鲁国,子路一字季路,孔子弟子,(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事亲孝.卫大夫孔悝(kui粤读灰),以为邑宰,时出公在位,孔悝母伯姬与竖良夫谋立.太子蒯(kuai粤读拐)(gui粤读贵)廹孔悝与蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公奔.子路入,蒯瞶,请杀孔悝,此谓孔悝之难,子路遂被害.

Confucius said:You(Zilu),those who cherish virtue are really scarce.

15.4:无为而治者,也与!夫何为哉?恭己正南面而已矣!

本章言圣人以盛德化民,不待有所作为也.

老师说:不其然而有所作为得天下大治的,那只有了吧!他做了些什么呢?只不过敬肃自己,端居在向着南面的君位上罢了.

无为而治者:位后,由于任人适当,又看不见他为私欲下作了什么.

无为:非以私心有所作为,顺乎自然之理以为治; 恭己:敬肃自己的德容; 正南面:端坐在向南的君位上,受人瞻仰;

:虞舜,.初居畎亩.有天下于故称虞舜. (虞故城在今山西省,平陆县东北,周武王于此;春秋时期晋侯借道于虞以灭虢,还师又灭虞),[]:古虞帝,姓姚,初居畎亩之中,能曲尽孝道.所居民多随之,唐尧举使摄政,乃除四凶[四凶族:浑敦(驩兜),穷奇(共工),梼杌(),饕餮(三苗).皆被舜所流放],举八元八恺,(:,:和也,义八文职八武职)天下大治,摄政三十年,受禅即帝位.有天之号曰有虞.,民称其号曰.史称虞舜.又称重华.后南巡崩于苍梧之野.在帝位十八年,子商均不肖,传位于禹.

Confucius said:To rule by not ruling,that was the way of Shun. What did he do? He merely sat himself gravely reverently in his imperial throne facing the south directly,that was all!

15.5 子张问行, 子曰:言忠信,行笃敬,虽蛮貊之邦行矣;言不忠信,行不笃敬,虽州里行乎哉?立则见其参于前也,在舆则见其倚于衡也,夫然后行; …子张书诸绅.

本章记孔子子张言行忠敬,可以通行天下.

子张问怎样做才可行通天下.老师说:说话忠诚信实,行为笃厚谨敬,虽走到蛮夷的地区也行得通.说话不忠诚信实,行为不笃厚谨敬,虽乡里之间行得通吗?立着时,这两句话就正对着在你面前,坐在车上,这两句话就在你车前横轭上,能这样,自然到处行得通了; …子张把两句话写在衣带上.

:行于世; :厚实也; 蛮貊:南蛮北狄,皆当时边疆未开化的民族; 参于前: 并立于前; :车也; 倚于衡:衡是车前的横轭,犹若刻()在车前的横轭间; :衣的大带下垂者;

子张: 颛孙,孔子弟子.孔子48.陈国人,孔子曾说过师也过(11.14),师也辟(11.16);后世有子张之儒派.

Zizhang asked about how to behave properly.

Confucius said:speak faithfully and honestly,act sincerely and respectfully,even in an uncivilized remote country, such behaviour is workable.

Should you not speak faithfully and honestly,If you are not acting sincerely and respectfully,although in neighbouring countries, I wonder if such behaviour will work.

You should therefore,while standing,see this reminder as if they were hanging in front of you. While driving your carriage,see the reminder as if they were carved upon the the yoke(steering bar).Then you can behave properly.

Zizhang wrote the reminder on his girdle.

15.6 :直哉史鱼!邦有道如矢, 邦无道如矢,君子哉蘧伯玉!邦有道则任,邦无道则可卷而怀之.

本章记孔子称赞卫国二贤臣.

老师说:一位正直的史鱼!当邦国有道时,他像一枝箭的正直. 当邦国无道时,也像一枝箭的正直.一位君子人的蘧伯玉,当邦国有道时,便出来做官.当邦国无道时,他就把才华收敛隐藏着不露面.

:,嵛行直道,箭飞无纡回也; 卷而怀之:收而藏之也;

史鱼:又名祝鮀:子鱼,左传称祝佗,大夫,大祝.有口才;

又名,子鱼;(qiu鳅粤读秋,字的本义逼迫);

蘧伯玉:大夫,伯玉,孔子卫国,曾入住他的家;

Confucius said:What a righteous man indeed Shiyu! When his state is righteously governed,he would like an arrow, straight and upright, When the state loses its righteousness, Shiyu would also be like an arrow, straight and upright. A man of virtue indeed Qu Boyu(Shiyu)! When the state is righteously governed, Shiyu would participate in office. When the state loses its righteousness,Shiyu would wrap up his talents and stored it up.

15.7:可与言而不与之,失人;不可与言而与之,失言; 知者不失人,亦不失言.

本章言与人相接,先要知人,不则必有所失也.

老师说:可以和他论道而不和他说,就会失掉了他.不可以和他论道却和他说了,是会说错话的.能明辨是非的智者,旣不会错待人,不会说错话.

失人:待慢了或失去了良师益友; 失言:错言,或降低了水平;

Confucius said:Someone who is worthy to talk to,yet you have not spoken with, you have lost a person.Talking to someone who is not worthy to speak with, you have wasted your words.A wise man would neither lose a person nor waste any words.

15.8:志士仁人,无求生以害仁,有杀身以成仁.

本章勉人在保全仁德勿失.\

老师说:有气节,有仁德的人,不会为了保全生命而伤害了仁德,而有牺牲生命来保全仁德的.

志士:有气节奋勇向上的人; 仁人:成就大德的人;

Confucius said: An ambitious scholar who is persistent to become benevolent would never spare his own life in the expenses of damaging his virtue. He would sacrifice his ownlife to accomplish virtue.

15.9子贡问为仁.子曰:工欲善其事,必先利其器.居是邦也,事其大夫之贤者,友其士之仁者.

本章孔子子贡行仁之方法.

子贡问为仁的方法.老师说:工匠要把他的工作做好,必先要有锋利好用的器具,居住在这一邦国中,要事奉这国内的贤大夫.结交这国内士林中有仁德的人.

:工匠; :交往朋友;

Zigong asked about the practice of virtue.

Confucius said:A tradesman wish to do a perfect job, must sharpen his tools first.In whatever state you reside,serve the most able ones among the officers,and make friends with the most virtuous among the scholars.

15.10颜渊问为邦.子曰:之时,之辂.之冕,乐则韶舞;放郑声,远佞人郑声淫,佞人殆.

本章记孔子颜渊治国中之各项礼乐制度.

颜渊问治国之道.老师说:代的历法,乘殷代的大车,穿着代冠服,时的舞乐,禁绝国的乐声,远离有口才而爱癫倒是非的人.声淫乱,有口才混淆是非的人会导致社会危殆不安.

夏之时:夏代的日历,即今之农历; 殷之辂:lu辂粤读路,代之大车,朴实耐用; 之冕:代祭服的冠; 韶舞:时的舞乐; :国的靡曼歌声; 佞人:用口才颠倒是非的人;

颜渊: 521-490颜名回.字子渊,亦谓颜渊.鲁国人.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..敏而好学.问一知十,自认不如.不迁怒,不贰过,贫居陋巷,一箪食(dan;古时竹饭碗)一瓢饮(piao,剖开的葫芦以盛水),而不改其乐.孔子称其贤.早卒,后世尊为复圣.

Yan Yuan asked about governing a state.

Confucius said:Follow the Xia almanac (annual weather forecast),ride yin’s carriages(utilize the transport system of Yin),wear the ceremonial caps of Zhou(adopt the rites of Zhou),play Shao’s musics and perform its dances,banish the tunes of Zhen,keep away from persons of glib tongue.The tunes of Zhen are wild excessive and licentious,obsequious people are dangerous.

15.11:人无远虑,必有近忧.

本章戒人凡事必要考虑深远.

老师说:人如果没有深远的考虑,必会有旦夕间的祸患.

Confucius said:If a person can not plan far ahead,he/she would face problems readily nearby.

15.12:已矣乎!吾未见好德如好色者也.

本章孔子寓意人多于好色而薄于德.此章重出{子罕篇9.17}

Confucius said:Have I seen everything?! I have not seen someone who is fond of virtue as much as fond of beauties!

15.13:臧文仲其窃位者与?知柳下惠之贤而不与立也.

本章斥臧文仲不能举贤.

老师说:臧文仲居官,是盗来的吧?知道柳下惠的贤能而不推荐与他并立于朝同理政事.

窃位:居其位有私心,如盗来而窃据之; 与立:与之并立于朝;

柳下惠:,,食邑柳下.国大夫.

臧文仲:臧孙,.大夫,谥曰{}.

Confucius said: Did Zang Wen Zhong steal his post or not? He knew the virtue and ability of Luxia Hui and yet did not recommend him for a stand in the court with him.

15.14:躬自厚而薄责于人,则远怨矣.

本章言修身宜严以责己,宽以待人.

老师说:厚于责己,薄以责人,这样就可以远离别人对你的怨恨了.

躬自厚:厚于责己;

Confucius said:He who can criticize more on himself and less on others,can keep the resentment far away.

15.15:[不曰:如之何如之何],吾末如之何也已矣.

本章言人如用心研究,方能受到教益.

老师说:如果一个人不时常地审问慎思的在说[这道理究竟是怎样?这道理究竟是怎样?]我就没有办法启导他了.

如之何:那会怎样发展呢此乃审问慎思之况也; :无也;

Confucius said:If a person can not constantly ask‘what to do next with this? What to do next with this?’,I am afraid that I do not know what to do next with him.

15.16:羣居终日,言不及义,好行小慧,难矣哉!

本章言结交损友,难以进德.

老师说:大家聚集在一起自早到晚,都没有谈论及道德上的事,只喜欢显示一点小聪明,这样的人难以入德了.

小慧:聪明;

Confucius said:Those groups spend a whole day together yet without any discussions of righteousness,but only fond of smart talks,they are really hard to deal with.

15.17:君子义以为质,礼以行之,孙以出之,信以成之,君子哉!

本章言君子言行,以义礼孙信为归.

老师说:君子一切言行,皆以义为本质,行要合乎礼教,表现的态度要谦虚,一切成功在信实,这样才是一个真实的君子啊!

:本质; :同逊,谦让也;

Confucius said:People with high moral standard will base righteousness as their principle,put it into action according to the practice of propriety.They are all the time modest in their talks,trustworthy with their promises…What a superior person indeed!

15.18:君子病无能焉,不病人之不己知也

本章言君子所忧心的是自己不够才德,不担心别人不知道自己.

老师说:君子所患的是自己没有足够才德,却不患别人不知道自己有的才德.

Confucius said:People that are able only worry that they are not able enough.They do not worry about other not knowing their outstanding abilities.

15.19:君子疾没世而名不称焉.

本章言君子自恶其美誉身后评以名不符实.

老师说:君子所憎恶的,终其一生,无德而称.

:憎恶;

Confucius said:An honourable person would feel chagrin at being left with an inappropriate title after his death.

15.20:君子求诸己,小人求诸人.

本章言君子与小人之相对心术.

老师说:君子的成就靠自力,小人的成就只会靠别人的努力.

Confucius said:Diligent people help themselves.Lazy bones beg for helps from other people.

15.21:君子矜不争,而不党.

本章言君子庄敬自持,不结党营私.

老师说:君子庄敬自持,与人无争.虽能合羣,却不会结党营私.(亦谓之和不同也,参阅13.23)

:庄敬自持; :朋比阿私.

Confucius said:A superior person is conceited but not contentious, socialable but not partisan.

15.22:君子不以言举人,不以人废言.

本章言君子公正,不由好恶,以事论事.

老师说:君子不会因能说得好听便聘用他,不会因以往印象不好而弃听他所说的话.

:聘用; :弃之不理;

Confucius said:A wise man does not promote a person simply base on his wise talks.Neither would he ignor a good suggestion base on the dislike of that person.

15.23子贡:有一言而可以终身行之者乎? 子曰:其恕乎!己所不欲,勿施于人.

本章明{}之可贵.

子贡:有这一个字可以作为终身行为的准则吗? …老师说:那就是[]字了.自己不喜欢的,不要加之于别人.

:一字也; :推己及人,to empathize;

子贡:端木赐卫国人.(贡本作赣),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子渊,子骞,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子贡,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子贡有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相卫,.尝说吴出师敌齐以存鲁.聘享诸侯.所至之国,其国君无不与之分庭抗礼.卒于.

Zigong asked:Is there a single saying which one can base on to act for the whole life?

Confucius said:Be Empathetically reciprocity.What you do not want to be done unto you,do not do it unto others.

15.24:吾之于人也,谁毁谁誉?如有所誉者,其有所试矣!斯民也,三代之所以直道而行也.

本章言评人善恶,该当公正,如私心褒贬,有违于传说的直朴风气.

老师说:我对人,怎敢随意毁谤或赞誉呢? 如果对人有所赞誉,必然经过了实际的考察.现代的人,还是行着三代直道流传的风气啊!(我怎能作私心的毁誉呢?)

谁毁谁誉:随意毁/; :考察其实际;

Confucius said:My comments on people, whether debase or praise…(are all without prejudice)

Should I have praised someone,it was with trials. People were like that in the three dynasties.Thats how their straightforwardness had led them to be so righteous

15.25:吾犹及史之阙文也;有马者,借人乘之,今亡矣夫?

本章言世风不古.

老师说:我还能看见史官记事,遇有所疑,缺之不写.有马的人家,肯借给别人骑用. 这两种好事(疑则缺,有则借),今天已经没有了.

史之阙文:古之良史,有疑则缺,以待能者.恐有误失真也;

Confucius said:I can still find lacumae for uncertain matters in the History Books.An owner of a steed would lend it to others to ride.Nowadays, both of these good things are obsolete.

15.26:巧言乱德,不忍则乱大谋.

本章戒人慎言能忍.

老师说:爱听巧言利口的说话,容易改变原来的操守.小事不能忍耐,便会败坏了大事.

巧言乱德:卖弄歪理的口才,有乱是非,引人入邪.

Confucius said:Crafty speeches can confound the principle of virtue.Intolerant with some trifle disparities can upset the whole project.

15.27:众恶之,必察焉;众好之,必察焉.

本章言人要有主见,不得阿随于众.

老师说:大家都讨厌这个人,必定要详加审察他. 大家都喜爱这个人,也必定要详加审察他.(不要阿附世俗之见)

Confucius said:When everyone hates a person,it is necessary to examine the whole case.When someone is being fond of by everyone, It is also necessary to examine the whole case.

15.28:人能弘道,非道弘人.

本章言道由人兴.

老师说:人可以将道弘大起来,道不能弘大起人来.

Confucius said:Only man can glorify the virtous path by walking on it. Virtuous path can not glorify a man as it can not force him to walk on it.

15.29:过而无改,是谓过矣.

本章勉人改.

老师说:有了过失,没有决心去改过,这才是真正的过失!

Confucius said:If you do not wish to rectify a fault, hence a true fault indeed!

15.30:吾尝终日不食,终夜不寝,以思,无益,不如学也.

本章戒人思而不学之失.

老师说:我曾经整天不吃,整夜不眠,不断地思考,总是无益,不如去学习的好.

Confucius said:I was once not eating the whole day, not sleeping the whole night,just meditating all the time,it was not good at all.I found learning  much better.

15.31子曰:君子谋道不谋食,耕也馁在其中矣,学也禄在其中矣.君子忧道不忧贫.

本章勉人求道,不徒志于安饱.

老师说:君子所求的是道德.不求安饱.耕田吧!遇到荒年也难免饥饿.学道呢,俸禄就会跟着来.君子只忧虑着道成不成,不忧虑贫穷没得吃.

:求也; :饥饿;

Confucius said: Scholars aim to find a way to achieve virtue, but not a way to fill up their granaries.As much as for farming,famine would still be inevitable.As much as for academics,it may lead you to gorgeous remunerations. My student should only concern on their academical achievement, they do not need to worry about poverty.  

15.32:知及之,仁不能守之,虽得之,必失之; 知及之,仁能守之,不庄以莅之,则民不敬;知及之,仁能守之,庄以莅之,动之不以礼,未善也.

本章述在位治民之法.

老师说:一个执政者有足够的才智治国家,如果他的仁德不能守住它(才智),虽然得到这职位,必定会丧失掉的.才智足以治理国家,有仁德也足以守住,如果不以庄重态度莅临人民,人民也不会对他尊敬.才智足以治理国家,有仁德足以守住,以庄重的态度莅临人民,如果策动人民不以礼,也不能到完善境界啊!

:同智,知及之:才智足以治国家; 庄以莅之:;莅临也,以庄重态度对民;

Confucius said:If a wise man won his office by his wisdom,yet his benevolent policy was inconsistent,although the office was under his control, he would surely lose it.

When an office was intelligently run,its benevolent policy was consistent,yet the ruler was appearing without dignity,people would not respect him.

If an office were intelligently run, its benevolent policy was consistent, its ruler was appearing with  dignity,yet it did not advocate the practice of propriety rites, it was still not perfect. 

15.33:君子不可小知而可大受也,小人不可大受而可小知也.

本章分别君子与小人的器量材用大小之不同.

老师说:不可以用小事情来评论君子,却可以让他担当重大的任务.不可以让小人担当重大的任务,只能用小事情来考验他.

小知:以小事来评价; 大受:能担当重大的任务;

Confucius said:Ountstanding people should not be judged by their unsuccessful trifle matters, yet they can be appointed with jobs that are heavily responsible. Simple people may have trifle successes yet can not prove them to be responsible for important jobs.

15.34:民之于仁也,甚于水火,水火吾见蹈而死者矣,未见蹈仁而死者也.

本章勉人为仁.

老师说:一般人对于仁的授益处,胜于水火对人的益处.水火,我也见过有人蹈火溺水而死,我从没见过有人实践仁德而死啊!

Confucius said:Virtue is more beneficial to human than fire and water.I have seen people died in venturing fire and water. I have not seen anyone died in venturing the path of virtue.

15.35:当仁,不让于师.

本章切实勉人为仁.

老师说:遇有涉及行仁义的事情,对师长也不必谦让.

Confucius said:One must not be modest in advocating virtue even in front of seniors ,or to yield humbly when doing a righteous thing.

15.36:君子贞而不谅.

本章言君子坚守正道不渝.

老师说:君子固守正道到底,而不必以小信见知.

:正而固也; :小信也;

Confucius said:A superior person is persistent but not obstinate.

15.37:事君,敬其事而后其食.

本章言臣事君之道.

老师说:事君之道,当谨敬职责,将俸禄之事放在后头.

Confucius said:When serving the prince, we should pay more attention to our jobs than our pays.

15.38:有教无类.

本章言人当平等同受教育.

老师说:只要侑机会受到教育,无分贫富贤愚.

Confucius said:I teach everyone. I do not refuse students for their backgrounds.

15.39:道不同,不相为谋.

本章言与人共事宜慎.

老师说:各人德业的趋向不同,就不能一起相互研究商讨了.

:操手; :计议商讨;

Confucius said:People heading for different directions,can not walke together.

15.40:,而已矣.

本章谓辞达意则足够了,不在乎富丽藻工.

老师说:文辞,只要达意便可以了.

Confucius said:speech is sufficient when the idea is conveyed

15.41 ,及阶,子曰:阶也.及席,子曰:席也. 皆坐,子告之曰:某在斯, 某在斯.…师冕出,子张:与师言之道与! …子曰:!固相师之道也.

本章记孔子辅助乐师,可见仁人待人之周到诚恳.

来见孔子,走到台阶前,老师说:这里是台阶; …走到坐位前, 老师说:这里是坐席; …大家坐定,老师告诉他说:某人在那里,某人在这里; …乐师辞出以后,子张:这就是和乐师说话的态度么? …老师说:对的,这就是相助乐师的态度啊!

:名叫的乐师,当世,乐师多为瞽者; :扶导也;

The music master Mian (a vision impaired musician) came to visit Confucius.when they walked to a flight of stairs,the master said:Here are steps.When they came to their mats, the master said:Here is your mat. When seated, the master said:So and so is here, so and so is there.When the music master had left,Zizhang asked:Is this the way to speak to a music master?

Confucius said:yes, this is surely the way to help the music master.

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