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2013-12-05 18:12:21|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【论中国第七章危机四起的十年大跃进()

The Great Leap Forward 1958大跃进

Chinas leaders had felt obliged by Khrushchev's Secret Speech to confront the issue of what, absent claims to a Party Chairman's godlike infallibility, constituted Communist political legitimacy. In the monthsfollowing the February 1956 speech, they seemed to feel their way toward making their own governance more transparent, presumably to avoid the need for periodic shocks of rectification. Worshipful references to Mao Zedong were deleted from the Communist Party constitution. The Party adopted resolutions cautioning against "rash
advance,,in the economic field and suggesting that the main phase of"class struggle" would now draw to a close. 19562月赫鲁夫作秘密报告之后中国领导层不得不开始正视党内的个人崇拜问题。秘密报告出台后的几个月,他们似乎一直谨慎行事,加自身领导工作的透明度,大概是为了避免通过一次次震撼人心的政治运动来拨乱反正。共产党党章删删去了对毛泽东的个人崇拜之词。党中央还通过决议告诫在经济领域中不得冒进暗示阶级斗争的主要阶阶段将告一段落.Butsuch a prosaic approach quickly clashed with Mao's vision of continuous revolution.Within months Mao proposed an alternative route to political rectification: the Chinese Communist Party would invite debate and criticism of its methods and open up China's intellectual and artistic life to let "one hundred flowers bloom and one hundred schools of thought contend. Maos exact motivein issuing this call remain a subject of debate. The Hundred Flowers Campaign has been explained as either a sincere call for the Party to cut through its bureaucratic isolation to hear directly from the people or a stratagem to coax enemies into identifying themselves.然而不久后毛泽东就提出了另一条道路中国共产党应主动发起鸣放欢迎批评意见开放中国的学术和艺术生活百花齐放百家争鸣。毛泽东究竟提出这个口号,人们至今仍争论不休。有人说百花齐放运动可能是真心诚意地要共产党摒弃官僚作风,直接听取人民的呼声;也可能只是一种策略,的是引诱敌对分子暴露自己。Whatever the motive,popular criticism quickly moved beyond suggestions for tactical adjustments into criticisms of the Communist system.不管动机如何,民众的意见很快就从调整方针政策的建议转对共产党制度的批评。Students set up a "democracy wall in Beijing. Critics protested the abuses or local officials and the privations imposed by Soviet-style economic policies; some contrasted the first decade of Communist rule unfavorably with the Nationalist era that preceded it. Whatever the original intention, Mao never brooked a challenge to his authority for long. He executed a sharp about-face and justified it as an aspect of his dialectic approach. The Hundred flowers movement was transformed into an"Anti-Rightist Campaignto deal with those who had misunderstood the limits of the earlier invitation to debate. A massive purge led to the imprisonment,reeducation, or internal exile of thousands of intellectuals. At the end of the process, Mao stood again as Chinas unchallenged leader, having cleared the field of his critics. He used his preeminence to accelerate the continuous revo?lution, turning it into the Great Leap Forward.北京学生立起了大字报墙批评者控诉地方干部滥用权,并抗议苏联式的经济政策造成了物资匮乏还有人说共产党领导的10年还不如此前的国民党时代。不管毛泽东的初衷如何,他从不容许别人长期挑战他的权.他突然来了个大转弯,搬出了辩证法的另一面。百花齐放一转身变为反右运动,以对付那些误解了争鸣范围的人。这是一场大规模的清算,成千上万的知识分子或锒铛入狱或接受再教育,或流放外地。最后,在扫清了所有批评者之后,毛泽东又以无人挑战的领袖身份傲然挺立,利用他的优势地位加快了继续革命的步伐,发动了大跃进运动

 

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