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近代三国志 中  

2013-02-25 00:03:17|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加码德笔记【近代三国志

十八世纪九十年代,中国GDP(国内生产总值已占全世界生产总值

27%.可惜清政府的闭关自守尤如万里长城万里空,百世英雄百世梦

{1791}

[Chosun] Ordered people to surrender all catholic literatures to be destroyed

[Japan] Asked coastal vassal states to persue seafaring knowledge. Forbade

mixed (men/women) public bathing.

{1792}

[Chosun] Awarded Ling’nan [岭南] large Confucius ceremony as it didn’t pursue western study. San’nan [三南] famine. Rasied fund.

[Japan] Jailed Lin’ji-ping [林子平], destroyed Sea-state military talk.[海国兵谈]. Russian

repatriated wandering Japanese. Ordered coastal vassal states to guard the shore-lines.

{1793}

[China] Aug., England sent official to be an audience with the Chief of State. Requested visa for English to live in China minding trade. Requested to link trade with Nin’bo [宁波], Tien’jin [天津]. All requests were rejected

[Chosun] Recruited people to develop ‘big small’ Qin’dao [‘大小青岛]

[Japan] Ordered coastal vassal states to patrol shore-line.

{1794}

[Chosun] Vast area famine. Raised fund

[China] Holland sent officials to be an audience with the Chief of State.

{1795}

[China] Emperor Qen’lun [干隆] resigned. Exchanged letters with Dutch king. Dec., English King visited on a commercial ship to pay tribute

[Chosun] Executed Chi’wan [池潢] because of pursuing western study.

{1796}

[Chosun] Acummulated Chinese printing-words 100,000; +200,000; in 300 years Then, 280,000 & wood carves 320,000 4-years ago Changed printing system

[Japan] Ryukyu [琉球] officials visited.

{1797}

[Chosun] Started imposing duty for Red-Ginseng.

[Japan] English ship arrived Xa’yi [虾夷].

{1798}

[Chosun] Finished editiing Chinese literature Wu’jin Bai-pien [五经百篇]

[Japan] Patrolled Xa’yi [虾夷]

{1799}

[China] Jun., conferred title Shan’won [尚温] ruler for Ryukyu [琉球].

[Chosun] Strange disease broke out in Xi’lu [西路]. Wide spread. Immensive casualties, unable to register the number of death.

[Japan] Xa’yi [虾夷] under Mok’fu [幕府] ruling (pro-western).

{1800}

[Chosun] Jun., Ching’te died [正德]. 11-year old Prince Zhun’ju[纯祖] inherited. Empress Kim-ji’s [金氏] power on the wane.  Disputes within South & North parties (Emperor-mother’s clan)

[Japan] Despatched geography surveyor to test Xa’ye [虾夷] land.

{1801}

[China] Annual tributing officials (submitting land-taxes) from Chosun informed about incidents of the [Evil Cult:邪教]

[Chosun] Executed catholics.  Legislated strict laws to prohibit evil-cult activities.

[Japan] Feb., assigned officials to Xa’yi [虾夷]

{1802}

[China] English ship arrived Ling’din water [零丁洋] attempting to land. Prohibitted. Conferred Russian border issues

[Japan] politically consolidating Xa’yi [虾夷] areas.

[Chosun] Shut-down the Stong-bravery Camp [壮勇营]

{1803}

[China] Apr., An’nan: Nguyen’phuc-anh [安南:阮福映] asked to be conferred with title.  Requested to change the name of the country to Nam’viet [南越]; approved to re-name as Vietnam [越南]. Jun., registered Nguyen’phuc-anh [阮福映] as Vietnam Vong [King:]. Dec., Pirates Zheng’yi-wu, Sek’eir [郑一乌,石二] defeated Canton navy at Lui’zhou water [雷州]

[Chosun] Investigated corruptive officials. Empress Kim’ji [大王大妃金氏] handed over power.

[Japan] 1st Li-wu-xiao earth-ware [濑户烧] produced

{1804}

[Japan] Russian ship sent back Sin’dai [仙台] wandering Japanese. Arrived Nagasaki [长崎], requested open trade.

{1805}

[China] English commercial ship arrived, presented gifts to Palace. Court ordered foreign affair officials to monitor English activities with local people and the articles they published privately. Apr., arrested catholic preachers. May, commenced censorship for foreign articles. Oct., sent gift (Chinese literatures) to the King of England. Dec., arrested officials who allowed Russian ship to trade in Canton

[Japan] Alerted coastal vassal states to guard shores.  Migrated people to western Xa’yi [虾夷]

{1806}

[Japan] ordered to deal with berthed Russian ship.

{1807}

[China] Jul., officials went to appoint Ryukyu [琉球] Chung’san King Shan’hou [中山尚灏].

[Chosun] Jing’ji, Wu’xi [京畿,湖西] completely ruined by devasting floods. Population 7,561,403

[Japan] Russian disturbed Xa’yi [虾夷] frequentlySent patrol to it.

{1808}

[China] Jul., English navy berthed at Shan’san province [香山], English troops occupied Macau [澳门] Cannon-fort [炮台]. Ordered English to leave. Nov., English navy retreated. Sacked Wu’sung-jiang [吴熊江] for being soft in handling the incident

[Chosun] Sent officials to Qin [] to purchase Historical & Mind-Purifying literatures.

[Japan] Moved Sindai [仙台] military to Xa’yi [虾夷]Constructed cannon-fort at Pu’he [浦贺] English ship robbed Nagasaki [长崎]

{1809}

[China] May, legislated laws to control foreign trades in Canton. Pirate Chu’ak [朱渥] harassed Canton, Nov., Chu’ak [朱渥] surrendered, confiscated over 40 ships, & over 800 cannons. Dec., pirate Kwok’po-dye [郭婆带] & associates surrendered.

[Chosun] Liang’wu [两湖] famine, raised fund.

[Japan] Explorer Jen’kun-lin’chon [间宫林藏] returned after an expedition in Hai’lung-jian [黑龙江] China.

{1810}

[China] Mar., banned Opium. Notorous pirates: Chang bo’ji [张保仔], Shan’san-er [香山二] surrendered. Apr., pirate Shen’di [沉带] surrendered. Jun., captured pirate Wu’xi-er [乌石二]. Pirate Dong’hai-ba [东海霸] surrendered

[Chosun] Lian’wu [两湖] Famine.

[Japan] English vessel arrived.

{1811}

[China] Jul., ordered to ban foreigners, locals, etc., all catholic activities.

[Japan] Russian ship arrived Xa’yi [虾夷].  Arrested the captain.

[Chosun] Royal family lose power. Poverty everywhere. Hung’jin [洪景] uprising echoed all places. Despatched Lee Yao’sen [李尧宪] to fight.

{1812}

[Chosun] Hung’jin [洪景] entered Ting’zhou [定州], Sent troops everywhere (civil war).  China military arrived to help. Apr., defeated Hung’jin [洪景], diedLian’xi, Wu’xi, Ling’nan, Hai’xi, Kwan’xi, [两西,湖西,岭南,海西,关西] famine. Raised funds

[Japan] Russian ship captured Go-tin ujar-bin’wai [高田屋嘉兵卫]

{1813}

[China] Jul., banned opium.  All users prosecuted for sure.

[Chosun] Jin’gi, Wu’xi, Ling’nan, Kwan’dong, Kwan’bei [京畿,湖西,岭南,关东,关北] severe famine. Fund raising everywhere.

[Japan] Russian ship released Go-tin ujar-bin’wai [高田屋嘉兵卫]; released the arrested Russian ship captain. Nov., (leap-month) Grand Empress Hou’yintin [后樱町女上皇] died.

{1814}

[China] Jan., legislated laws to punish silver smuggling out of the country.

[Chosun] Immensive famine. Fund raising.

[Jpan] Dutch visited to employ/recruit.

{1815}

[China] Set rules to allow searching for opiums in foreign ships. Oct., hanged a preacher due to unlawfully sneaked into the country, operating illegal activities.

[Chosun] Expelled black-magic Buddhists. Severe disease epidemic.

[Japan] Dutch officials edited translation dictionary

{1817}      

[Chosun] San’nan [三南] flooded, heavy casualties.

[Japan] Mar., Emperor Gon’ga [光格] resigned. Sept., Ren’xiao [仁孝] 120th Emperor ascended the throne. English ship arrived Pu’he [浦贺]

{1821}

[China] Aug., Jing’xi [京师] severe disease epidemic. Sept., US sailor killed a Guanzhou woman, verdicted; hanged. Nov., English wished to purchase Xin’jian [新疆] horses,  Not allowed.

[Chosun] Dispatched officers to ractify records registered in China. Mysterious disease epidemic in Kwan’xi [关西] over100,000 death. Severe famine.

[Japsn] Raised funds for poverty. Restricted mass production of silver-wares.

{1822}

[Japan] English ship arrived Pu’he [浦贺]. Aug., Sept., Ji’nai; San’yin; San’yan [畿内,山阴,山阳] severe cholera epidemic.

[Chosun] Kwan’xi [关西]Famine. Severe disease epidemic.

{1824}

[Chosun] Big memorial event for martyr Ming’xi-chung [明思宗] 180-years ago.

[Japan] English ship arrived Shan’lu [常陆]; disturbed Bo’dle [宝岛].

{1825}

[Japan] English ship arrived Lu Au’chun [陆奥冲].

[Chosun] Wu’xi [湖西] famine

{1827}

[Chosun] Xi’jiwu [世子吴] in power.

{1830}

[China] Jun., legislation prohibiting opium selling. Jul., Forbade officials assigned to Chosun accepting personal gifts. Population : 394,780,000

[Chosun] Xi’jiwu [世子吴]died.

[Japan] Juli-chanjuan [足立长隽] pioneer of learning western products.

{1832}

[Chosun] Autumn, big flood. English ship berthed at

Hung’zhou [洪州], requested trading. Not allowed. 

Jin’ji, Hai’xi, Wu’xi [京畿,海西,湖西] famine.

[Japan] Officials from Ryukyu [琉球] visited.

{1839}

[China] 3rd Nov., U.K. invasion, 1st opium war broke out.

[Chosun] Executed priests and 150 catholic. Western studies prohibited. Lian’xi [两西] famine. [Japan] Buddhist gathering prohibited. 

[United Kingdom] 13th May, over 1 million signatures letter-to-contend handed over to the parliament. July. Riots spreaded all over the country (worse violence in Buckingham Idustrial area). Nov., Newporte military police fired killing 20 wounding hundreds of demonstrators.

{1840}

[China] Qin [] official Lin je’shu [林则徐] immensively destroyed opium smugglings.

[Japan] Visiting chinese merchants informed about the English invasion. Medicine advertisement in Dutch prohibited

{1841}

[Hongkong] Ceded privately by a Qin [] officer Qi’shen [琦善].  Arrested Qi’shen [琦善]

{1844}

[Japan] Dutch officials arrived to report about the European current-affairs and it’s trend.

{1845}

[Chosun] Reported to China about English illegal activities in Wu’nan-Xin’yang [湖南兴阳] & Ji’zhou [济州].

[Japan] Pu’he [浦贺] constructed cannon bases. English ship arrived Nagasaki [长崎]

{1846}

[Chosun] French ship arrived Hung’zou [洪州] to investigate the killing of 3 priests, hence left. Executed Kim Da’gen [金大建] due to giving reception to foreigner.

[Japan] Emperor Ren’xiao [仁孝] died. French ship arrived from Ryukyu [琉球], requested to open trade, rejected. American ship arrived Pu’he [浦贺] requested to open trade, rejected. Denmark ship arrived Pu’he [浦贺]Japan strengthened coastal guards. Mok’fu [幕府] reported all incidences in detail.

{1847}

[Chosun] Xin’jin-mak [成近默] asserted the disastrous effects of Catholic and foreigners.

[Japan] Dutch urged to establish diplomatic link. Sept.,121st Emperor Xiao’min [孝明] ascended the throne.

{1848}

[Chosun] legislated laws to prohibit Opium.

[Japan] American ship drifted to Xa’yi[虾夷].Various Japanese advocated to persue

western knowledge i.e English, French.

Manufactured western weapontry. Harbinger of westernizing

{1849}

[Chosun] Jun., King Zen’chung [宪宗] died, no son. China appointed Lee’xin [李升] to succeed the throne.

[Japan] Dutch learnt vaccination of smallpox.

{1850}

[Japan] Portuguese urged to open trade.           

{1851}

[Chosun] Lian’xi [两西] Flooded. 

{1852}

[Chosun] population 6.810,206.

[Japan] Dutch kept persuading to open trade

{1853}

[Japan] American officials arrived from Ryukyu [琉球]. US army coerced to open trade. Russian arrived Nagasaki [长崎].

[Chosun] Ling’nan [岭南] serious famine.

{1854}

[Japan] Jan., American officials returned. Opened 2 ports for trade. Mar., signed <Friendly treaty> with America. May western-designed liner ‘Phoenix’[凤凰丸] sea-borne. Jul., English liner arrived Nagasaki [长崎]. Aug., signed <Friendly treaty> with England. Dec., signed<Friendly treaty> with Russia. Thus 2 centures <<Close-door policy >> ended.

{1855}

[Japan] Made cannons out of Temple’s bells. English ship arrived Nagasaki[长崎]. Dutch contributed liners & small cannons.

{1856}

[Chosun] Devastating flood in Ling’nan [岭南].

[Japan] American official requested to meet ‘General’. English Navy Admiral requested to review agreement.

{1857}

[Japan] Mar., American requested meeting with ‘General’. Dithering for 6 months. Vassal states favoured war with America. ‘General’ hesitated. American further coerced. Japan succumbed. American officials advised the world-trend & disadvantages of Opium; Mok’fu [幕府] took notes and despatched memo to all vassal states.

[Chosun] Devastating flood in San’nan [三南]

{1858}

[Japan] Started trading with (June) America, (July) Russia, Holland, England, (Sept) France.

{1860}

[Chosun] Severe disease epidemic, heavy casualties. Sent officials to China expressing cordial regards as the 2nd opium war <Anglo-France invasion> broke out

[Japan] ‘General’ disagreements in Mok’fu [幕府] pro-western policy augmented

{China}Vigorous civil wars broke out; continous nefararious activities by foreign powers which forced China into futher concessions.

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