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2015-11-13 20:06:14|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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30养气章第三十Proper Cultivation

以道佐人主者,不以兵强天下。He who knows how to guide a ruler in the path of Tao Does not try to override the world with force of arms.其事好还。It is in the nature of a military weapon to turn against its wielder.师之所处,荆棘生焉。Wherever armies are stationed, thorny bushes grow.大军之后,必有凶年。After a great warr, bad years invariably follow.善有果而已,What you want is to protect efficiently your own state不敢以取强But not to aim at self-aggrandisement.。果而勿矜,After you have attained your purpose,You must not parade your success,果而勿伐You must not boast of your ability,,果而勿骄,You must not feel  proud,果而不得已, You must rather regret that you had not been able to prevent the war.果而勿强。You must never think of conquering others by force.物壮则老,For to be over- developed is to hasten decay,是谓不道,And this is against Tao,不道早已。And what is against Tao will soon cease to be.






31贵左章第三十一 The Graceful Left

夫佳兵者不祥之器。Fine weapons of war augur evil。物或恶之,Even things seem to hate them。故有道者不处。Therefore a man of Tao does not set his heart upon them君子居则贵左,In ordinary lifea gentleman regards the left side as the place of honour:用兵则贵右。In war the right side is the place of honour。兵者不祥之器,As weapons arc instruments of evil,非君子之器;They are not properly a gentleman's instruments;不得已而用之。Only on necessity will he resort to them.恬淡为上,For peace and quiet are dearest to his heart,胜而不美。And to them even a victory is no causc for rejoicing。而美之者,是乐杀人。To rejoice over a victory is to rejoice over the slaughter Of menn!夫乐杀人者,则不可以得志于天下矣。Hence a man who rejoices over  the slaughter of men Cannot expect to thrivein the world of men吉事尚左,凶事尚右。On happy occasions the left side is preferre, On sad occasions the right side偏将军居左,In the army, Lieutenant Commander stands on the left,上将军居右。ぃWhile the commander-in-Chief stands on the right。言以丧礼处之。This means that war is treated on a par with a funeral service杀人之众,以哀悲泣之。Because many people have been killed it is only right that survivors should mourn for them。战胜以丧礼处之。Hence,even a victory is a funeral






32知止章第三十二Knowing the Limit of mankind

道常无名。Tao is always nameless.朴虽小,Small as it is in its primal simplicity, 天下莫能臣也。It is inferior to nothing in the world.侯王若能守之,If only a ruler could cling to it,万物将自宾,Everything will render homage to him.天地相合,Heaven and Earth will be harmonized以降甘露,And send down sweet dew.民莫之令而自均。Peace and order will reign among the people Without any command from above.始制有名。When once the Primal simplicity diversified,名亦既有,Different names appeared.夫亦将知止。Are there not enough names now?知止可以不殆。Is this not the time to stop? To know when to stop is to preserve ourselves from danger.譬道之在天下,犹川谷之于江海。The Tao is to the world what a great river or an ocean is to the streams and brooks.






33尽已章第三十三The utmost Effort

知人者智,He who knows men is clever,自知者明。He who knows himself has insight.胜人者有力。He who conquers  men has  force;自胜者强。He who conquers himself is truly strong.知足者富。He who knows when he has got enough is rich,强行者有志。And he who adheres assiduously to the path of  Tao is a man of steady purpose.不失其所者久,He who stays where he has found his true home endures long.死而不亡者寿。And he who dies but perishes not enjoys real longevity.






34成大章第三十四The Nature of Tao

大道汜兮,The great Tao is universal like a flood.其可左右? How can it beturned to the right or to the left?万物恃之而生All creatures depend on it,而不辞。And it denies nothing to anyone.功成It does its work,不名有。But it makes no claims for itself.衣养万物It clothes and feeds all,而不为主:But it does notlord it over them:常无欲,可名于「小」。Thus, it may be called"the Little."万物归焉All things return to it as to their home,而不为主:But it does not lord it over them:可名为「大」。Thus, it may be called "the Great.” 以其终不自为大,故能成其大。It is just because it does not wish to be great That its greatness is fully realized.






35大象章第三十五The attraction of Tao

执大象,天下往。He who holds the Great Symbol will attract all things to him,往而不害,They flock to him and receive no harm, for in him they Find peace,安平太。security and happiness.乐与饵,过客止。Music and  dainty dishes can only make a passing guest pause.道之出口,But the wordsof Tao possess lasting effects,淡乎其无味;Though they are mild and flavourless,视之不足见,听之不足闻,Though theyappeal neither to the eye nor to the ear.用之不足既。However its supply is unlimited.






36微明章第三十六The subtle Strategy of Tao

将欲歙之,What is in the end to be snrunken,必固张之。Begins by being first stretched out.将欲弱之,What is in the end to be weakened,必固强之。Begins by being first made strong.将欲废之,What is in the end to be thrown down,必固兴之。Begins by being first set on high.将欲夺之,What is in the end to be despoiled,必固与之。Begins by being first richly endowed.是谓微明:Herein is the subtle wisdom of life:柔弱胜刚强。The soft and weak overcomes the hard and strong鱼不可脱于渊。Just as the fish must not leave the deeps,国之利器,不可以示人。So the ruler must not display his weapons.




想要收敛它,必先扩张它,想要削弱它,必先加强它,想要废去它,必先台举它,想要夺取它,必先给予它。这就叫做虽然微妙而又显明,柔弱战胜刚强。鱼的生存不可以脱离池渊,国家的刑法政教不可以向人炫耀,不能轻易用来吓唬人。 [注释]


37无为章第三十七Idle but Efficacious

道常无为,"Tao never makes any ado,而无不为。And yet it does everything.侯王若能守之,If a ruler can cling to it,万物将自化。All things will evolve themselves.化而欲作,When they have grown and tend to make a stir,吾将镇之以无名之朴。It is time to keep them in their place by the aid of the nameless Primal Simplicity,镇之以无名之朴,In keeping them in their nameless Primal Simplicity,夫亦将无欲。Which alone can curb the desires of men.不欲以静,When the desires of men are curbed,天下将自定。hENCE the world will settle down of its own accorc






38明德章第三十八Obsequious Hypocrisy

上德不德,High virtue is unnoticeable;是以有德。thereFore it is virtuous.下德不失德,Low virtue never frees itself from even the smallest virtuousnessTherefore是以无德。it has no genuine virtue.上德无为,而无以为。High Virtue makes no fuss and has no private ends to serve:下德为之,而有以为。Low virtue not only fusses but has private ends to serve.上仁为之,而无以为。High humanity fusses but has no private ends to serve:上义为之,而有以为。High morality not only fusses but has private ends to serve.上礼为之,而莫之应,High ceremony fusses but finds no response;则攘臂而扔之。Then it tries to enforce itself with rolled-up sleeves.故失道而后德Failing Tao, man resorts to Virtue.,失德而后仁,Failing Virtue, man resorts to humanity.失仁而后义,Filling humanity, man resorts to morality.失义而后礼。Failing morality, man resorts to ceremony.夫礼者,忠信之薄;Now, ceremony is the merest husk of faith and loyalty;而乱之首。It is the beginning of all confusion and disorder.前识者道之华,As to foreknowledge, it is only the flower of Tao,而愚之始。And the beginning of folly.是以大丈夫处其厚,不居其薄;Thefore, the full-grown man sets his heart upon the substance rather than the husk;处其实,不居其华。Upon the fruit rather than the flower,故去彼取此。Truly, he prefers what is within to what is without.






39知本章第三十九The undeniable Origin

昔之得一者。From of old there are not lacking things that have attained Oneness.天得一以清;The sky  attained Oneness and became clear;地得一以宁;The earth attained Oneness and became calm神得一以灵;The spirits attained Oneness and became charged with mystical powers;谷得一以盈;The fountains attained Oneness and became full,万物得一以生;The ten thousand creatures attained Oneness And became reproductive;侯王得一以为天下贞。Marquis and princes attained Oneness and became sovereign rulers of the world.其致之。All of them are what they are by virtue of Oneness.天无以清,将恐裂。If the sky were not clear, it would be likely to crack into pieces;地无以宁,将恐发。If the earth were not calm, it would be likely to burstinto bits;神无以灵,将恐歇。If the spirits were not charged with mystical powers, They would be likely to cease from being;谷无以盈,将恐竭。If the fountains were not full, they would be likely to dry up;万物无以生,将恐灭。If the ten thousand creatures were not productive, they would be likely to come to extinction;侯王无以贵高,将恐獗。If the Marquis and princes were not the sovereign rulers, they would be likely  to stumble and fall.故贵以贱为本,Truly, humility is the root from which greatness springs,高以下为基。And the high must be built upon the foundation of the low.是以侯王自谓That is why Marquis and princes style themselves「孤寡不谷」 。‘The Helpless One,” "The Little One, and "The Worthless One.,,此非以贱为本耶?Perhaps they too realize their dependence upon the lowly.非乎?故致数舆无舆。Truly, too much honour means no honour.不欲碌绿如玉,珞珞如石。It is not wise to shine like jade and resound like stone-chimes.





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