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道德经章30-39中英浅译  

2015-11-13 20:06:14|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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道德经章30-39中英浅译

 

30养气章第三十Proper Cultivation

以道佐人主者,不以兵强天下。He who knows how to guide a ruler in the path of Tao Does not try to override the world with force of arms.其事好还。It is in the nature of a military weapon to turn against its wielder.师之所处,荆棘生焉。Wherever armies are stationed, thorny bushes grow.大军之后,必有凶年。After a great warr, bad years invariably follow.善有果而已,What you want is to protect efficiently your own state不敢以取强But not to aim at self-aggrandisement.。果而勿矜,After you have attained your purpose,You must not parade your success,果而勿伐You must not boast of your ability,,果而勿骄,You must not feel  proud,果而不得已, You must rather regret that you had not been able to prevent the war.果而勿强。You must never think of conquering others by force.物壮则老,For to be over- developed is to hasten decay,是谓不道,And this is against Tao,不道早已。And what is against Tao will soon cease to be.

{原文}

以道佐人主者,不以兵强天下,其事好还。师之所处,荆棘生焉。大军之后,必有凶年。善有果而已,不敢以取强。果而勿矜,果而勿伐,果而勿骄,果而不得已,果而勿强。物壮则老,是谓不道,不道早已。

[译文]

依照的原则辅佐君主的人,不以兵力逞强于天下。穷兵黩武这种事必然会得到报应。军队所到的地方,荆棘横生,大战之后,一定会出现荒年。善于用兵的人,只要达到用兵的目的也就可以了,幷不以兵力强大而逞强好斗。达到目的了却不自我矜持,达到目的了也不去夸耀骄傲,达到目的了也不要自以为是,达到目的却出于不得已,达到目的却不逞强。事物过去强大就会走向衰朽,这就说明它不符合于,不符合于的,就会很快死亡。

 

31贵左章第三十一 The Graceful Left

夫佳兵者不祥之器。Fine weapons of war augur evil。物或恶之,Even things seem to hate them。故有道者不处。Therefore a man of Tao does not set his heart upon them君子居则贵左,In ordinary lifea gentleman regards the left side as the place of honour:用兵则贵右。In war the right side is the place of honour。兵者不祥之器,As weapons arc instruments of evil,非君子之器;They are not properly a gentleman's instruments;不得已而用之。Only on necessity will he resort to them.恬淡为上,For peace and quiet are dearest to his heart,胜而不美。And to them even a victory is no causc for rejoicing。而美之者,是乐杀人。To rejoice over a victory is to rejoice over the slaughter Of menn!夫乐杀人者,则不可以得志于天下矣。Hence a man who rejoices over  the slaughter of men Cannot expect to thrivein the world of men吉事尚左,凶事尚右。On happy occasions the left side is preferre, On sad occasions the right side偏将军居左,In the army, Lieutenant Commander stands on the left,上将军居右。ぃWhile the commander-in-Chief stands on the right。言以丧礼处之。This means that war is treated on a par with a funeral service杀人之众,以哀悲泣之。Because many people have been killed it is only right that survivors should mourn for them。战胜以丧礼处之。Hence,even a victory is a funeral

{原文}

夫兵者,不祥之器,物或恶之,故有道者不处。君子居则贵左,用兵则贵右。兵者不祥之器,非君子之器,不得已而用之,恬淡为上,胜而不美,而美之者,是乐杀人。夫乐杀人者,则不可得志于天下矣。吉事尚左,凶事尚右。偏将军居左,上将军居右。言以丧礼处之。杀人之众,以悲哀莅之,战胜以丧礼处之。

[译文]

兵器啊,是不祥的东西,人们都厌恶它,所以有“道”的人不使用它。君子平时居处就以左边为贵而用兵打仗时就以右边为贵。兵器这个不祥的东西,不是君子所使用的东西,万不得已而使用它,最好淡然处之,胜利了也不要自鸣得意,如果自以为了不起,那就是喜欢杀人。凡是喜欢杀人的人,就不可能得志于天下。吉庆的事情以左边为上,凶丧的事情以右方为上,偏将军居于左边,上将军居于右边,这就是说要以丧礼仪式来处理用兵打仗的事情。战争中杀人众多,要用哀痛的心情参加,打了胜仗,也要以丧礼的仪式去对待战死的人。

 

32知止章第三十二Knowing the Limit of mankind

道常无名。Tao is always nameless.朴虽小,Small as it is in its primal simplicity, 天下莫能臣也。It is inferior to nothing in the world.侯王若能守之,If only a ruler could cling to it,万物将自宾,Everything will render homage to him.天地相合,Heaven and Earth will be harmonized以降甘露,And send down sweet dew.民莫之令而自均。Peace and order will reign among the people Without any command from above.始制有名。When once the Primal simplicity diversified,名亦既有,Different names appeared.夫亦将知止。Are there not enough names now?知止可以不殆。Is this not the time to stop? To know when to stop is to preserve ourselves from danger.譬道之在天下,犹川谷之于江海。The Tao is to the world what a great river or an ocean is to the streams and brooks.

{原文}

道常无名,朴虽小,天下莫能臣。侯王若能守之,万物将自宾。天地相合,以降甘露,民莫之令而自均。始制有名,名亦既有,夫亦将知止,知止可以不殆。譬道之在天下,犹川谷之于江海。

[译文]

“道”永远是无名而质朴的,它虽然很小不可见,天下没有谁能使它服从自己。侯王如果能够依照“道”的原则治理天下,百姓们将会自然地归从于它。天地间阴阳之气相合,就会降下甘露,人们不必指使它而会自然均匀。治理天下就要建立一种管理体制,制定各种制度确定各种名分,任命各级官长办事。名分既然有了,就要有所制约,适可而止,知道制约、适可而止,就没有什么危险了。“道”存在于天下,就像江海,一切河川溪水都归流于它,使万物自然宾服。

 

33尽已章第三十三The utmost Effort

知人者智,He who knows men is clever,自知者明。He who knows himself has insight.胜人者有力。He who conquers  men has  force;自胜者强。He who conquers himself is truly strong.知足者富。He who knows when he has got enough is rich,强行者有志。And he who adheres assiduously to the path of  Tao is a man of steady purpose.不失其所者久,He who stays where he has found his true home endures long.死而不亡者寿。And he who dies but perishes not enjoys real longevity.

{原文}

知人者智,自知者明。胜人者有力,自胜者强。知足者富,强行者有志,不失其所者久,死而不亡者寿。

[译文]

能了解、认识别人叫做智慧,能认识、了解自己才算聪明。能战胜别人是有力的,能克制自己的弱点才算刚强。知道满足的人才是富有人。坚持力行、努力不懈的就是有志。不离失本分的人就能长久不衰,身虽死而仍存的,才算真正的长寿。

 

34成大章第三十四The Nature of Tao

大道汜兮,The great Tao is universal like a flood.其可左右? How can it beturned to the right or to the left?万物恃之而生All creatures depend on it,而不辞。And it denies nothing to anyone.功成It does its work,不名有。But it makes no claims for itself.衣养万物It clothes and feeds all,而不为主:But it does notlord it over them:常无欲,可名于「小」。Thus, it may be called"the Little."万物归焉All things return to it as to their home,而不为主:But it does not lord it over them:可名为「大」。Thus, it may be called "the Great.” 以其终不自为大,故能成其大。It is just because it does not wish to be great That its greatness is fully realized.

{原文}

大道汜兮,其可左右。万物恃之以生而不辞,功成而不有。衣养万物而不为主,常无欲,可名于小;万物归焉而不为主,可名为大。以其终不自为大,故能成其大。

[译文]

大道广泛流行,左右上下无所不到。万物依赖它生长而不推辞,完成了功业,办妥了事业,而不占有名誉。它养育万物而不自以为主,可以称它为“小”,万物归附而不自以为主宰,可以称它为“大”。正因为他不自以为伟大,所以才能成就它的伟大、完成它的伟大。

 

35大象章第三十五The attraction of Tao

执大象,天下往。He who holds the Great Symbol will attract all things to him,往而不害,They flock to him and receive no harm, for in him they Find peace,安平太。security and happiness.乐与饵,过客止。Music and  dainty dishes can only make a passing guest pause.道之出口,But the wordsof Tao possess lasting effects,淡乎其无味;Though they are mild and flavourless,视之不足见,听之不足闻,Though theyappeal neither to the eye nor to the ear.用之不足既。However its supply is unlimited.

{原文}

执大象,天下往。往而不害,安平太。乐与饵,过客止,道之出口,淡乎其无味,视之不足见,听之不足闻,用之不足既。

[译文]

谁掌握了那伟大的“道”,普天下的人们便都来向他投靠,向往、投靠他而不互相妨害,于是大家就和平而安泰、宁静。音乐和美好的食物,使过路的人都为之停步,用言语来表述大道,是平淡而无味儿的,看它,看也看不见,听它,听也听不见,而它的作用,却是无穷无尽的,无限制的。

 

36微明章第三十六The subtle Strategy of Tao

将欲歙之,What is in the end to be snrunken,必固张之。Begins by being first stretched out.将欲弱之,What is in the end to be weakened,必固强之。Begins by being first made strong.将欲废之,What is in the end to be thrown down,必固兴之。Begins by being first set on high.将欲夺之,What is in the end to be despoiled,必固与之。Begins by being first richly endowed.是谓微明:Herein is the subtle wisdom of life:柔弱胜刚强。The soft and weak overcomes the hard and strong鱼不可脱于渊。Just as the fish must not leave the deeps,国之利器,不可以示人。So the ruler must not display his weapons.

{原文}

将欲歙之,必固张之;将欲弱之,必固强之;将欲废之,必固兴之;将欲取之,必固与之。是谓微明,柔弱胜刚强。鱼不可脱于渊,国之利器不可以示人。

[译文]

想要收敛它,必先扩张它,想要削弱它,必先加强它,想要废去它,必先台举它,想要夺取它,必先给予它。这就叫做虽然微妙而又显明,柔弱战胜刚强。鱼的生存不可以脱离池渊,国家的刑法政教不可以向人炫耀,不能轻易用来吓唬人。 [注释]

 

37无为章第三十七Idle but Efficacious

道常无为,"Tao never makes any ado,而无不为。And yet it does everything.侯王若能守之,If a ruler can cling to it,万物将自化。All things will evolve themselves.化而欲作,When they have grown and tend to make a stir,吾将镇之以无名之朴。It is time to keep them in their place by the aid of the nameless Primal Simplicity,镇之以无名之朴,In keeping them in their nameless Primal Simplicity,夫亦将无欲。Which alone can curb the desires of men.不欲以静,When the desires of men are curbed,天下将自定。hENCE the world will settle down of its own accorc

{原文}

道常无为而无不为。侯王若能守之,万物将自化。化而欲作,吾将镇之以无名之朴,镇之以无名之朴,夫将不欲。不欲以静,天下将自定。

[译文]

道永远是顺任自然而无所作为的,却又没有什么事情不是它所作为的。侯王如果能按照“道”的原则为政治民,万事万物就会自我化育、自生自灭而得以充分发展。自生自长而产生贪欲时,我就要用“道”来镇住它。用“道”的真朴来镇服它,就不会产生贪欲之心了,万事万物没有贪欲之心,天下便自然而然达到稳定、安宁。

 

38明德章第三十八Obsequious Hypocrisy

上德不德,High virtue is unnoticeable;是以有德。thereFore it is virtuous.下德不失德,Low virtue never frees itself from even the smallest virtuousnessTherefore是以无德。it has no genuine virtue.上德无为,而无以为。High Virtue makes no fuss and has no private ends to serve:下德为之,而有以为。Low virtue not only fusses but has private ends to serve.上仁为之,而无以为。High humanity fusses but has no private ends to serve:上义为之,而有以为。High morality not only fusses but has private ends to serve.上礼为之,而莫之应,High ceremony fusses but finds no response;则攘臂而扔之。Then it tries to enforce itself with rolled-up sleeves.故失道而后德Failing Tao, man resorts to Virtue.,失德而后仁,Failing Virtue, man resorts to humanity.失仁而后义,Filling humanity, man resorts to morality.失义而后礼。Failing morality, man resorts to ceremony.夫礼者,忠信之薄;Now, ceremony is the merest husk of faith and loyalty;而乱之首。It is the beginning of all confusion and disorder.前识者道之华,As to foreknowledge, it is only the flower of Tao,而愚之始。And the beginning of folly.是以大丈夫处其厚,不居其薄;Thefore, the full-grown man sets his heart upon the substance rather than the husk;处其实,不居其华。Upon the fruit rather than the flower,故去彼取此。Truly, he prefers what is within to what is without.

{原文}

上德不德,是以有德;下德不失德,是以无德。上德无为而无以为;下德无为而有以为。上仁为之而无以为;上义为之而有以为。上礼为之而莫之应,则攘臂而扔之。故失道而后德,失德面后仁,失仁而后义,失义而后礼。夫礼者,忠信之薄,而乱之首。前识者,道之华,而愚之始。是以大丈夫处其厚,不居其薄;处其实,不居其华。故去彼取此。

[译文]

具备“上德”的人不表现为外在的有德,因此实际上是有“德”;具备“下德”的人表现为外在的不离失“道”,因此实际是没有“德”的。“上德”之人顺应自然无心作为,“下德”之人顺应自然而有心作为。上仁之人要有所作为却没有回应他,于是就扬着胳膊强引别人。所以,失去了“道”而后才有“德”,失去了“德”而后才有“仁”,失去了“仁”而后才有“义”,失去了义而后才有礼。“礼”这个东西,是忠信不足的产物,而且是祸乱的开端。所谓“先知”,不过是“道”的虚华,由此愚昧开始产生。所以大丈夫立身敦厚,不居于浇薄;存心朴实,不居于虚华。所以要舍弃浇薄虚华而采取朴实敦厚。

 

39知本章第三十九The undeniable Origin

昔之得一者。From of old there are not lacking things that have attained Oneness.天得一以清;The sky  attained Oneness and became clear;地得一以宁;The earth attained Oneness and became calm神得一以灵;The spirits attained Oneness and became charged with mystical powers;谷得一以盈;The fountains attained Oneness and became full,万物得一以生;The ten thousand creatures attained Oneness And became reproductive;侯王得一以为天下贞。Marquis and princes attained Oneness and became sovereign rulers of the world.其致之。All of them are what they are by virtue of Oneness.天无以清,将恐裂。If the sky were not clear, it would be likely to crack into pieces;地无以宁,将恐发。If the earth were not calm, it would be likely to burstinto bits;神无以灵,将恐歇。If the spirits were not charged with mystical powers, They would be likely to cease from being;谷无以盈,将恐竭。If the fountains were not full, they would be likely to dry up;万物无以生,将恐灭。If the ten thousand creatures were not productive, they would be likely to come to extinction;侯王无以贵高,将恐獗。If the Marquis and princes were not the sovereign rulers, they would be likely  to stumble and fall.故贵以贱为本,Truly, humility is the root from which greatness springs,高以下为基。And the high must be built upon the foundation of the low.是以侯王自谓That is why Marquis and princes style themselves「孤寡不谷」 。‘The Helpless One,” "The Little One, and "The Worthless One.,,此非以贱为本耶?Perhaps they too realize their dependence upon the lowly.非乎?故致数舆无舆。Truly, too much honour means no honour.不欲碌绿如玉,珞珞如石。It is not wise to shine like jade and resound like stone-chimes.

{原文}

昔之得一者,天得一以清;地得一以宁;神得一以灵;谷得一以盈,万物得一以生;侯王得一以为天下正。其致之也,谓天无以清,将恐裂;地无以宁,将恐废;神无以灵,将恐歇;谷无以盈,将恐竭;万物无以生,将恐灭;侯王无以正,将恐蹶。故贵以贱为本,高以下为基。是以侯王自称孤、寡、不谷。此非以贱为本邪?非乎?故至誉无誉。是故不欲琭琭如玉,珞珞如石。

[译文]

往昔曾得到过道的:天得到道而清明;地得到道而宁静;神(人)得到道而英灵;河谷得到道而充盈;万物得到道而生长;侯王得到道而成为天下的首领。推而言之,天不得清明,恐怕要崩裂;地不得安宁,恐怕要震溃;人不能保持灵性,恐怕要灭绝;河谷不能保持流水,恐怕要干涸;万物不能保持生长,恐怕要消灭;侯王不能保持天下首领的地位,恐怕要倾覆。所以贵以贱为根本,高以下为基础,因此侯王们自称为“孤”、“寡”、“不谷”,这不就是以贱为根本吗?不是吗?所以最高的荣誉无须赞美称誉。不要求琭琭晶莹像宝玉,而宁愿珞珞坚硬像山石。

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