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40道用章第四十Reviewing the Intrincic value of Tao

反者道之动。The movement of the Tao consists in Returning.弱者道之用。The use of the Tao consists in softness.天下万物生于有。All things under heaven are born of the corporeal:有生于无。The corporeal is born of the Incorporeal.






41道品章第四十一The Command of Tao

上士闻道,勤而行之。Wen a wise scholar hears the Tao, He practises it diligently.中士闻道,若存若亡。Vhen a mediocre scholar hears the Tao, :He wavers between belief and unbelief.下士闻道,大笑之。When a charlatan hears the TaoHe laughs boisterously at it.不笑不足以为道。But ifsuch a one does not laugh at it,The Tao would not he the Tao!故建言有之:Thus assertion from olden days had stated:明道若昧。The bright Way looks dim.进道若退。The progressive Way looks retrograde.夷道若类。The smooth Way looks rugged.上德若谷。High Virtue looks like an abyss.大白若辱。Great whiteness looks spotted.广德若不足。Abundant Virtue looks deficient.建德若偷。Established Virtue looks shabby.质真若渝。Solid Virtue looks as though melted.大方无隅。Great squareness has no corners.大器晚成。Great talents ripen late.大音希声。Great sound is silent.大象无形。Great Form is shapeless.

道隐无名。The Tao is hidden and nameless;夫唯道,善贷且成。Yet it alone knows how to render help and to fulfill.






42根源章第四十二Reviewing the Axiom of Tao

道生一,Tao gave birth to One,一生二,One gave birth to Two,二生三,Two gave birth to Three,三生万物。ThreeD gave birth to all the myriad things.万物负阴而抱阳,All the myriad things carry the Yin on their backs and hold the Yang in their embrace,冲气以为和。Deriving their vital harmony from the proper blending of the two vital Breaths.人之所恶,What is more loathed by men than to be唯「孤寡不榖」,“helpless,” “little” and “worthless”而王公以为称。And yet these are the very names the princes and Marquis call themselves.故物或损之而益,Truly, one may gain by losing;或益之而损。And one  may lose by gaining.人之所教,我亦教之What another has taught let me repeat::「强梁者,不得其死。」“A man? of violence will come to a violent end.”吾将以为教父。Whoever said this can be my teacher and my father.






43至柔章第四十三The Power of Yielding

天下之至柔,The softest of all things驰聘天下之至坚。Overrides the hardest of all things.无有入无间。Only Nothing can enter into no-space.吾是以知无为之有益。Hence I know the advantages of Non-Ado.不言之教,Few things under heaven are as instructive as the lessons of Silence,无为之益,Or as beneficial as the fruits of Non-Ado.天下希及之。Such is all but rare to match.






44保命章第四十四Beware of the Fatal Temptation

名与身孰亲?As for your name and your body, which is the dearer?身与货孰多?As for your body and your wealth, which is the more to be prized?得与亡孰病?As for gain and loss, which is the more painful?是故甚爱必大费。Thus an excessive love for anything will cost you dearin the end.多藏必厚亡。The storing up of too much goods will entail a heavy loss.知足不辱。To know when you have enough is to be immune from disgrace.知止不殆。To know when to stop is to be preserved from perils.可以长久。Only thus can you endure long.






45静章第四十五The Fallible Concept

大成若缺,The greatest perfection seems imperfect,其用不弊。And yet its use is inexhaustible.大盈若冲,The greatestt fullness seems empty,其用不穷。And yet  its use is endless.大直若屈。The greatest] straightness looks like crookedness.大巧若拙。The greatest skill appears clumsy.大辩若讷。The greatest eloquence sounds like stammering.躁胜寒。Restlessness overcomes cold,静胜热。But calm overcomes heat.清静为天下正。The peaceful and serene Is the Norm of the World.






46常足章第四十六 Self-Content is Pacifism

天下有道,When the world is in possession of the Tao,却走马以粪。The galloping horses are led to fertilize the fields with

their droppings.天下无道,When the world has become Taoless,戎马生于郊。War horses breed themselves on the suburbs.祸莫大于不知足。There is no calamity like not knowing what is enough.咎莫大于欲得。There is no evil like covetousness.故知足之足常足矣。Only he who knows what is enough will always have enough.






47知见章第四十七Brilliant Foresight of the Tao

不出户,Without going out of your door,知天下。You cant know the ways of the world.不关牖,Without peeping through your window,见天道。You can see the Way of Heaven.其出弥远,The farther you go,其知弥少。The less you know.

以是圣人不行而知, Thus, the Sage knows without travelling不见而名,Sees without looking,不为而成。And achieves without Ado.






48损益章第四十八Inwardness of Progression

为学日益,Learning consists in daily accumulating,

为道日损。The practice of Tao consists in daily diminishing.损之又损,Keep on diminishing and diminishing,以至于无为Until you reach the state of No-Ado.。无为而无不为。No Ado, and vet nothing is left undone.取天下常以无事。To win the world, one must renounce all.及其有事,If   one still has private ends to serve,不足以取天下One will never be able to win the world.






49德善章第四十九A Paradigm for rulers to copy

圣人无常心,The Sage has no interests of his own,以百姓心为心。But takes the interests of the people as his own.善者吾善之,He is kind to the kind;不善者吾亦善之;He is also Kind to the unkind:德善。For Virtue is kind.信者吾信之,He is faithful to the faithful;不信者吾亦信之;He is also faithful to the unfaithful:德信。For Virtue is faithful.

圣人在天下, In the  midst of the world, 歙歙为天下浑其心。the Sage is shy and self-effacing. For the sake of the world he keeps his heart in its nebulous百姓皆注其耳目All the people strain their ears and eyes:,圣人皆孩之。The Sage only smiles like an amused infant.






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