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道德经章60-70中英浅译  

2015-11-24 22:59:18|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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道德经章60-70中英浅译

 

60大国章第六十Lesser rulings for a Bigger ruler.

治大国若烹小鲜。Ruling a big kingdom is like cooking a small fish.以道莅天下,When a man of Tao reigns over the world,其鬼不神。demons have no spiritual powers.非其鬼不神,Not that the demons have no spiritual powers,其神不伤人。but the spirits themselves do no harm to men.非其神不伤人,Not that the spirits do no harm to men,圣人亦不伤人。but the Sage himself does no harm to his people.夫两不相伤,If only the ruler and his people would refrain from harmingeach other,故德交归焉。all the benefits of life would accumulate in the kingdom.

{原文}

治大国,若烹小鲜,以道莅天下,其鬼不神。非其鬼不神,其神不伤人。非其神不伤人,圣人亦不伤人。夫两不相伤,故德交归焉。

[译文]

治理大国,好象煎烹小鱼。用“道”治理天下,鬼神起不了作用,不仅鬼不起作用,而是鬼怪的作用伤不了人。不但鬼的作用伤害不了人,圣人有道也不会伤害人。这样,鬼神和有道的圣人都不伤害人,所以,就可以让人民享受到德的恩泽。

 

61居下章第六十一The Efficiency of Modesty

大国者下流。A great country is like the lowland toward which all streams flow.天下之交It is the Reservoir of all under heaven,天下之牝。the Feminine of the world.牝常以静胜牡,The Feminine always conquers the Masculine by her quietness,以静为下by lowering herself through her quietness.故大国以下小国,Hence, if a great country can lower itself before a small country,则取小国;it will win over the small country;小国以下大国,and if a small country can lower itself before a great country,则取大国。it will win over the great country.故或下以取The one wins by stooping the other,或下而取。by remaining low.大国不过欲兼畜人。What a great country wants is simply to embrace more people;小国不过欲入事人。and what a small country wants is simply to come to serve its patron.夫两者各得其所。Thus, each gets what it wants.欲大者,宜为下。But it behooves a great country to lower itself.

{原文}

大国者若下流,天下之交,天下之牝。牝恒以静胜牡,以静为下。故大国以下小国,则取小国。小国以下大国,则取大国。故或下以取,或下而取。大国不过欲兼蓄人,小国不过欲入事人。夫两者各得其所欲,大者宜为下。

[译文]

大国如果谦卑处下似江海,就能成为天下文化的汇归之处,就会成为天下依赖的母亲。雌性坚持以柔静征服雄性,在于她以静为下的自性。所以大国若对小国谦卑处下,便能赢得小国的信赖。小国若对大国谦卑处下,便能获得大国的保护。所以或者因谦卑处下而赢得信赖,或者因谦卑处下而获得保护。大国希望有小国的加盟而强大,小国希望借大国的力量而生存。若想让两者都得到自己所希望的目的,大国的谦卑尤其重要。

 

62赞道章第六十二The Indispensable Tao

道者万物之奥,The fao is the hidden Reservoir of all things.善人之宝,A treasure to the honest,不善人之所保。it is a safeguard to the erring.美言可以市,A good word will fina its own market.尊行可以加人。A good deed may be used as a gift to another.人之不善,That a man is straying from the right path何弃之有?Is no reason that he should be cast away.故立天子,Hence,at the Enthronement of an Emperor,置三公,Or at the Installation of the Three Dukes,虽有拱璧Let others offer their discs of jade,以先驷马,following it up with, teams of horses;不如坐进此道。It is better for you to offer the Tao without moving your feet!古之所以贵此道者何?Why did the ancients prize the Tao?不曰以求得,Is it nor because by virtue of it he who seeks finds,有罪以免耶?And the guilty are forgiven?故为天下贵。That is why it is such a treasure to the world.

{原文}

道者,万物之奥,善人之宝,不善人之所保。美言可以市尊,美行可以加人。人之不善,何弃之有?故立天子,置三公,虽有拱璧以先驷马,不如坐进此道。古之所以贵此道者何?不曰:求以得,有罪以免邪?故为天下贵。

[译文]

“道”是荫庇万物之所,善良之人珍贵它,不善的人也要保持它。需要的时候还要求它庇护。美好的言辞可以换来别人对你的尊重;良好的行为可以见重于人。不善的人怎能舍弃它呢?所以在天子即位、设置三公的时候,虽然有拱壁在先驷马在后的献礼仪式,还不如把这个“道”进献给他们。自古以来,人们所以把“道”看得这样宝贵,不正是由于求它庇护一定可以得到满足;犯了罪过,也可得到它的宽恕吗?就因为这个,天下人才如此珍视“道”。

 

63源头章第六十三The key to Success

为无为。Do the Non-Ado.事无事。Strive for the effortless.味无味。Savour the savourless.大小多少。Exalt the low. Multiply the few.报怨以德。Requite injury with kindness. 图难于其易。Nip troubles in the bud.为大于其细。Sow the great in the small.天下难事必作于易。Difficult things of the world Can only be tackled when they are easy.天下大事必作于细。Big things of the world Can only be achieved by attending to their small beginnings.是以圣人终不为大,Thusthe Sage never has to grapple with big things,故能成其大。Yet he alone is capable of achieving them !夫轻诺必寡信。He who promises lightly must be lacking in faith.多易必多难。He who thinks everything easy will end by finding everything difficult.是以圣人犹难之,故终无难矣。Thereforethe Sage, who regards everything as difficult, Meets with no difficulties in the end.

{原文}

为无为,事无事,味无味。大小多少。报怨以德。图难于其易,为大于其细;天下难事,必作于易;天下大事,必作于细。是以圣人终不为大,故能成其大。夫轻诺必寡信,多易必多难。是以圣人犹难之,故终无难矣。

[译文]

以无为的态度去有所作为,以不滋事的方法去处理事物,以恬淡无味当作有味。大生于小,多起于少。处理问题要从容易的地方入手,实现远大要从细微的地方入手。天下的难事,一定从简易的地方做起;天下的大事,一定从微细的部分开端。因此,有“道”的圣人始终不贪图大贡献,所以才能做成大事。那些轻易发出诺言的,必定很少能够兑现的,把事情看得太容易,势必遭受很多困难。因此,有道的圣人总是看重困难,所以就终于没有困难了。

 

64辅物章第六十四The predictable Evolution

其安易持。What is at rest is easy to hold.其未兆易谋。What manifests no omens is easily forestalled.其脆易泮。What is fragile is easily shattered.其微易散。What is small is easily scattered.为之于未有,Tackle things before they have appeared.治之于未乱。Cultivate peace and order before confusion and disorderhave set in.合抱之木生于毫末。A tree as big as a man's embrace springs from a tiny sprout.九层之台,起于累土。A tower nine stories high begins with a heap of earth.千里之行始于足下。A journey of a thousand leagues starts from where your feet stand.为者败之,He who fusses over anything spoils it.执者失之。He who grasps anything loses it.是以圣人无为故无败,The Sage fusses over nothing and therefore spoils nothing.无执故无失。He grips at nothing and therefore loses nothing.民之从事,常于几成而败之。In handling affairs, people often spoil them just at the point of success.慎终如始,则无败事。With heedfulness in the beginning and patience at the end, nothing will be spoiled. 是以圣人欲不欲,therefore, the Sage desires to be desireless.不贵难得之货;Sets no value on rare goods,学不学,Learns to unlearn his learning,复众人之所过:And induces the masses to return from where they have overpassed.以辅万物之自然而不敢为。He only helps all

creatures to find their own nature, But does not venture to lead them by the nose.

{原文}

其安易持,其未兆易谋;其脆易泮,其微易散。为之于未有,治之于未乱。合抱之木,生于毫末;九层之台,起于累土;千里之行,始于足下。为者败之,执者失之。是以圣人无为故无败,无执故无失。民之从事,常于几成而败之。慎终如始,则无败事。是以圣人欲不欲,不贵难得之货,学不学,复众人之所过,以辅万物之自然而不敢为。

[译文]

局面安定时容易保持和维护,事变没有出现迹象时容易图谋;事物脆弱时容易消解;事物细微时容易散失;做事情要在它尚未发生以前就处理妥当;治理国政,要在祸乱没有产生以前就早做准备。合抱的大树,生长于细小的萌芽;九层的高台,筑起于每一堆泥土;千里的远行,是从脚下第一步开始走出来的。有所作为的将会招致失败,有所执着的将会遭受损害。因此圣人无所作为所以也不会招致失败,无所执着所以也不遭受损害。人们做事情,总是在快要成功时失败,所以当事情快要完成的时候,也要像开始时那样慎重,就没有办不成的事情。因此,有道的圣人追求人所不追求的,不稀罕难以得到的货物,学习别人所不学习的,补救众人所经常犯的过错。这样遵循万物的自然本性而不会妄加干预。

 

65大顺章第六十五An Ideal Civilization

古之善为道者,In the old days, those who were well versed in the practice of the Tao非以明民,did not try to enlighten the people,将以愚之。but rather to keep them in the state of simplicity. For,民之难治,why are the people hard to govern?以其智多。Because they are too clever!故以智治国,国之贼。Thereforehe who governs his state with cleverness is its malefactor;不以智治国,国之福。but he who governs his state without resorting to cleverness is its benefactor.知此两者亦稽式。To know these two principles is to possess a rule and a measure.常知稽式, To keep the rule and the measure constantly in your mind是谓元德。 is what we call Mystical Virtue.元德深矣,远矣, Deep and far-reaching is Mystical Virtue! 与物反矣,然后乃至大顺。It leads all things to return, till they come back to Great Harmony!

{原文}

古之善为道者,非以明民,将以愚之。民之难治,以其智多。故以智治国,国之贼;不以智治国,国之福。知此两者,亦稽式。常知稽式,是谓玄德。玄德深矣,远矣,与物反矣,然后乃至大顺。

[译文]

古代善于为道的人,不是教导人民知晓智巧伪诈,而是教导人民淳厚朴实。人们之所以难于统治,乃是因为他们使用太多的智巧心机。所以用智巧心机治理国家,就必然会危害国家,不用智巧心机治理国家,才是国家的幸福。了解这两种治国方式的差别,就是一个法则,经常了解这个法则,就叫做“玄德”。玄德又深又远,和具体的事物复归到真朴,然后才能极大地顺乎于自然。

 

66善下章第六十六The Power of Amicability

江海所以能为百谷王者,How does the sea become the king of all streams?以其善下之,Because it lies lower than they!故能为百谷王。Hence it is the king of all streams.是以欲上民,Thereforethe Sage reigns over the people by必以言下之;humbling himself in speech;欲先民,必以身后之。And leads the people by putting himself behind.是以圣人处上而民不重,Thus it is that when a Sage stands above the people, theydo not feel the heaviness of his weight;处前而民不害。And when he stands in front of the people, they do not feel hurt.是以天下乐推而不厌。Therefore all the world is glad to push him forward without getting tired of him.以其不争,故天下莫能与之争。Just because he strives with nobody, Nobody can ever strive with him.

{原文}

江海之所以能为百谷王者,以其善下之,故能为百谷王。是以圣人欲上民,必以言下之;欲先民,必以身后之。是以圣人处上而民不重,处前而民不害。是以天下乐推而不厌。以其不争,故天下莫能与之争。[译文]

江海所以能够成为百川河流所汇往的地方,乃是由于它善于处在低下的地方,所以能够成为百川之王。因此,圣人要领导人民,必须用言辞对人民表示谦下,要想领导人民,必须把自己的利益放在他们的后面。所以,有道的圣人虽然地位居于人民之上,而人民幷不感到负担沉重;居于人民之前,而人民幷不感到受害。天下的人民都乐意推戴而不感到厌倦。因为他不与人民相争,所以天下没有人能和他相争。

 

67三宝章第六十七The Three Principles

天下皆谓我道大,All the world says that my Tao is great,似不肖。but seems queer,夫唯大,like nothing on earth. But it is just because my lao is great故似不肖。that it is like notning on earth. If it were like anything on earth,若肖,久矣其细也夫!how small it would have been from the very beginning!我有三宝,I have Three Treasures,持而保之。which I hold fast and watch over closely.一曰慈。The first is Mercy.二曰俭。The second is Frugality.三曰不敢为天下先,The third is Not Daring to Be First in the World.慈故能勇。Because I am merciful, therefore I can be brave.俭故能广。Because I am frugal, therefore I can be generous.不敢为天下先,故能成器长。Because I dare not be first, therefore I can be the chief of all vessels.今舍慈且勇。If a man wants to be brave without first being merciful,舍俭且广,generous without first being frugal,舍后且先,a leader without first wishing to follow,死矣。he is only courting death!夫慈以战则胜,Mercy alone can help you to win a war.以守则固。Mercy alone can helpyou to defend your state.天将救之,以慈卫之。For Heaven will come to the rescue of the merciful, and protect him with its Mercy.

{原文}

天下皆谓我道大,似不肖。夫唯大,故似不肖。若肖,久矣其细也夫!我有三宝,持而保之:一曰慈;二曰俭;三曰不敢为天下先。慈,故能勇;俭,故能广;不敢为天下先,故能成器长。今舍其慈,且勇;舍其俭,且广;舍其后为,且先,死矣。

夫慈,以战则胜,以守则固。天将救之,以慈卫之。

[译文]

天下人都说我所说的道太过普泛了,很难加以具体把握。要知道,正因为它是普泛的行为规范,所以才不象具体旅途的具体准则;如果针对具体旅途作具体论述,它早就琐碎不堪了。我有三条基本的行为原则,把持它以保证大道得以贯彻执行:第一是柔慈;第二是俭约;第三是不与天下争得利之先。保持柔慈,就能全力以赴;保持俭约,就能行走于广阔的天地;不与天下争得利之先,就能成为群体的首领。如果舍弃柔慈而妄逞勇武,舍弃俭约而行广,舍弃谦让而争先,那就死定了。保持柔慈,投入战争就能取得胜利,用于防守就能巩固。对于慈者,整个自然环境都会救助他,因为慈在守护着他。

 

 

68不争章第六十八Formidable Warrior

善为士者不武。A good soldier is never aggressive善战者不怒。A good fighter is never angry.善胜敌者不与。The best way of conquering an enemy Is to win him over by not antagonizing him.善用人者为之下。The best way of employing a man

Is to serve under him.是谓不争之德。This is called the virtue of non-striving!是谓用人之力。This is called using the abilities of men!是谓配天古之极。This is called being wedded to Heaven as of old!

{原文}

善为士者,不武;善战者,不怒;善胜敌者,不与;善用人者,为之下。是谓不争之德,是谓用人之力,是谓配天古之极。

[译文]

善于带兵打仗的将帅,不逞其勇武;善于打仗的人,不轻易激怒;善于胜敌的人,不与敌人正面冲突;善于用人的人,对人表示谦下。这叫做不与人争的品德,这叫做运用别人的能力,这叫做符合自然的道理。

 

69用兵章第六十九The Strategy of Inferiorityness

用兵有言The strategists have a saying「吾不敢为主而为客I dare not be a host, but rather a guest不敢进寸而退尺。I dare not advance an inchbut rather retreat a foot.」是谓行无行,This is called marching without moving,欉无臂,Rolling up one's sleeves without baring one's arms,扔无敌,Capturing the enemy without confronting him,执无兵。Holding a weapon that is invisible.祸莫大于轻敌,There is no greater calamity than to under-strength of your enemy.轻敌几丧吾宝。For to under-estimate the strength of your enemy is to lose your treasure.故杭兵相加哀者胜矣。Therefore, when opposing troops meet in battle, victory belongs to the grieving side.

{原文}

用兵有言:吾不敢为主而为客,不敢进寸而退尺。

是谓行无行,攘无臂,执无兵,乃无敌。祸莫大于轻敌,轻敌几丧吾宝。故抗兵相加,哀者胜矣。

[译文]

统帅武装力量的人总是说:武装力量只是某一主体的客属,我不敢反客为主,不敢让它前行示人,而要让它收缩而置后。这就叫做行动无阵势可把捉,使人明白我在挥舞着的不是用于击人的手臂,拿着的也不是用于伤人的武器,于是就不会促成紧张对峙而树敌了。祸患莫大于轻侮敌人,轻侮敌人就差不多丧尽了我所说的"三宝"。所以,等到真正以武力相对抗的时候,首先宽容忍让,最后才不得已而奋起的一方通常会取胜。

 

70悲世章第七十Have mercy on the World-wide-Dyslexia

吾言甚易知My words arc very easy to understand,甚易行。and very easy to practise天下莫能知莫能行。But the world cannot understand them, nor practise them. 言有宗事有君。My words have an Ancestor. My deeds have a Lord.夫唯无知,The people have no knowledge of this.是以不我知Therefore, they have no knowledge of me. 知我者希,The fewer persons know me,则我者贵。The nobler are they that follow me.是以圣人被褐怀玉。Therefore, the Sage wears coarse clothes, While keeping the jade in nis bosom.

{原文}

吾言甚易知,甚易行。天下莫能知,莫能行。言有宗,事有君。夫唯无知,是以不我知。知我者希,则我者贵。是以圣人,被褐怀玉。

[译文]

我的话很容易知晓,很容易践行。而天下却不能知晓,不愿意践行。言所指向自有出处,事所提及必有主人。唯有放下后天知见,才能不断知晓我们的感知。知道我们的人稀少,才显出我们的可贵。所以圣人,外表淳朴而内心如玉。

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