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道德经章20-29中英浅译  

2015-11-09 17:40:52|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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道德经章20-29中英浅译

 

20母章第二十Heavenly Sustenance for Grantede

绝学无忧。Have done with learning,And you will have vexation no more.“之与,相去几何?How great is the difference between “Hi!” and “Hey!” ?善之与恶,相去若何?What is the distinction between good and evil”?人之所畏,不可不畏。Must I fear what others fear?荒兮其未央哉!What abysmal nonsense this is!众人熙熙,如享太牢,All men arc joyous and beaming, As though feasting upon a sacrificial ox,如春登台。As though mounting the Spring Terrace;我独泊兮其未兆。如婴儿之未孩。I alone am placid and give no sign, Like a babe which has not yet smiled.儽儽兮若无所归。I alone amm forlorn as one who has no home to return to.众人皆有狳,而我独若遗。All men have enough and to spareI alone  appear to possess nothing.我愚人之心也哉!Whata fool I am!沌沌兮!What a muddled mind I have!俗人昭昭,All men arc bright, bright:我独昏昏。I alone  am dull dull.俗人察察,All men are active:我独闷闷。I alone am inactive!澹兮其若海。Blandlike the ocean,兮若无止。Aimless like the wafting gale.众人皆有以,All men settle down in their grooves:而我独顽似鄙。I alone am stubborn and remain outside.我独异于人,而贵食母!But where in I am most different from others is In knowing to takesustenance From my Mother-Nature.

{原文}

绝学无忧。之与,相去几何?善之与恶,相去若何?人之所畏,不可不畏。荒兮其未央哉!众人熙熙,如享太牢,如春登台。我独泊兮其未兆。如婴儿之未孩。儽儽兮若无所归。众人皆有狳,而我独若遗。我愚人之心也哉!沌沌兮!俗人昭昭,我独昏昏。俗人察察,我独闷闷。澹兮其若海。兮若无止。众人皆有以,而我独顽似鄙。我独异于人,而贵食母! [

[译文]

应诺和呵斥,相距有多远?美好和丑恶,又相差多少?人们所畏惧的,不能不畏惧。这风气从远古以来就是如此,好象没有尽头的样子。众人都熙熙攘攘、兴高采烈,如同去参加盛大的宴席,如同春天里登台眺望美景。而我却独自淡泊宁静,无动于衷。混混沌沌啊,如同婴儿还不会发出嘻笑声。疲倦闲散啊,好象浪子还没有归宿。众人都有所剩余,而我却像什么也不足。我真是只有一颗愚人的心啊!众人光辉自炫,唯独我迷迷糊糊;众人都那么严厉苛刻,唯独我这样淳厚宽宏。恍惚啊,像大海汹涌;恍惚啊,像飘泊无处停留。世人都精明灵巧有本领,唯独我愚昧而笨拙。我唯独与人不同的,关键在于得到了“道”的滋养。

 

21从道章第二十一 The Virtuous path of Tao

孔德之容,惟道是从。It lies  in the nature of Grand Virtue To follow the Tao and the Tao alone.道之为物,惟恍惟惚。Now what is the Tao? it is Something elusive and evasive.惚兮恍兮,其中有象。Evasive and elusive And yet It contains within Itself a Form.恍兮惚兮,其中有物。Elusive and evasive

And yet It contains within Itself a Substance.窈兮冥兮,其中有精。Shadowv and dim And yet It contains within Itself a Core of Vitality.其精甚眞,其中有信。The Core of Vitality is very real, It contains within Itself an unfailing Sincerity.

自古及今,其名不去。Throughoutthe ages Its Name has been preserved以阅众甫。吾何以知众甫之状哉?以此。In order to recall the Beginning of all things, How do I know the ways of all things at the Beginning? By what is within me.

{原文}

孔德之容,惟道是从。道之为物,惟恍惟惚。惚兮恍兮,其中有象。恍兮惚兮,其中有物。窈兮冥兮,其中有精。其精甚眞,其中有信。自古及今,其名不去。以阅众甫。吾何以知众甫之状哉?以此。

[译文]

弘德形态,是从道所决定的。“道”这个东西,没有清楚的固定实体。它是那么的惚惚恍恍啊,其中却有形象。它是那么的恍恍惚惚啊,其中却有实物。它是那么的深远暗昧啊,其中却有精质;这精质是最真实的,这精质是可以信验的。从当今上溯到古代,它的名字永远不能废除,依据它,才能观察万物的初始。我是怎样知道万事万物开始的情况呢?是从“道”的本身认识的。

 

22抱一章第二十二 Consensus on Tao

曲则全。Bend and you will be whole.枉则直。Curl and you will be straight.洼则盈。Keep empty and you will be filled.敝则新。Worn out and then renewed,少则得。Have little and you will gain.多则惑。Have much and you will be confused.是以圣人抱一为天下式。Thereforc, the Sage embraces the One, And becomes a Pattern to all under Heaven.不自见,故明。He does not make a show of himself, Hence he shines不自是故彰。Does not justify himself, Hence he becomes known不自伐故有功。Does not boast of his ability,Hence he gets his credit;不自矜,故长。Does not brandish his success,Hence he endures; 夫唯不争,故天下莫能与之争Does not compete with anyone, Hence no one can compete with him。古之所谓「曲 则全」者,岂虚言哉。Indeed,the ancient saying:“Bend and you will remain whole”is no idle word,诚全而归之。Since that you have really attained wholeness, everything will flock to you.

{原文}

曲则全。枉则直。洼则盈。敝则新。少则得。多则惑。是以圣人抱一为天下式。不自见,故明。不自 是,故彰。不自伐,故有功。不自矜,故长。夫唯不争,故天下莫能与之争。古之所「曲 则全」者,岂虚言哉。诚全而归之。

[译文]

委曲则能求全.不在乎被冤枉的人必然是性格率直的.位于漥地是易盈的.不耻下问的人的学问是盈满的.东西破旧了才会更新.少欲望则容易满足.多要求则常感困惑.抱着这圣人单纯心境就足以为天下人作模式.不固执自己成见的人,他的心才能够明白.不认为自己才是全对的人,他的德行才能够彰显出来.不夸耀自己功劳的人,便赚到别人给他记功,不骄傲自己的才华,更受人尊敬.因为他不与人争夺,故天下的人也没法跟他较量..因此古人所说的[委曲就能求全]道理,岂是虚伪的言论!所以说能够时时 坚守这般中肯 的人,天下自然就归附于他.

 

23自然章第二十三The course of Tao

希言自然。Only simple and quiet words will ripen of themselves.故飘风不终朝,For a whirlwind does not last a whole morning,骤雨不终日。Nor does a suudden shower last a whole day.孰为此者?天地! Who is their author? Heaven-and-Earth!天地尚不能久,而况于人乎?Even Heaven-and-earth cannot make such violent things last long How much ruler is it of the rash endeavours of men?故从事于道者,道者同于道;Hence he who cultivates the Tao is one with the Tao.德者同于德;He who practices Virtue is one with Virtue;失者同于失。And he who courts after Loss is one with Loss. 同于道者’道亦乐得之To be one with the Tao is to be a welcome accession to the Tao;;同于德者,德亦乐得之:To be one with Virtue is to be a welcome accession to Virtue;同于失者,失亦乐得之。To be one with Loss is to be a welcome accession to Loss信不足焉’有不信焉。Deficiency or raith on your part Entails faithlessness on the part of others.

[原文]}

希言自然。故飘风不终朝,骤雨不终日,孰此者?天地。天地尚不能久,而于人乎?故从事于道者同于道;德者同于德;失者同于失。同于道者,道亦乐得之;同于德者,德亦乐得之;同于失者,失亦乐得之。信不足焉,有不信焉!

[译文]

不言政令不扰民是合乎于自然的。狂风刮不了一个早晨,暴雨下不了一整天。谁使它这样的呢?天地。天地的狂暴尚且不能长久,更何况是人呢?所以,从事于道的就同于道,从事于德的就同于德,从事于失的人就同于失。同于道的人,道也乐于得到他;同于德的人,德也乐于得到他;同于失的人,失也乐于得到他。统治者的诚信不足,就会有人不信任。

 

24 守常章第二十四 Stay Moderate

企者不立。One on tip-toe cannot stand.跨者不行。One astride cannot walk.自见者不明。One who displays himself does not shine.自是者不彰。One who justifies himself has no glory.自伐者无功。One who boasts of his own ability has no merit.自矜者不长。One who parades his own success will not endure.其在道也曰:「余食赘行」,物或恶之,In Tao these things are called "unwanted food and extraneous growths,”Which are loathed by all things.故有道者不处。Hence, a man of Tao does not set his heart upon them.

 {原文}

企者不立,跨者不行;自见者不明;自是者不彰;自伐者无功;自矜者不长。其在道也,曰余食赘形。物或恶之,故有道者不处。

[译文]

踮起脚跟想要站得高,反而站立不住;迈起大步想要前进得快,反而不能远行。自逞已见的反而得不到彰明;自以为是的反而得不到显昭;自我夸耀的建立不起功勋;自高自大的不能做众人之长。从道的角度看,以上这些急躁炫耀的行为,只能说是剩饭赘瘤。因为它们是令人厌恶的东西,所以有道的人决不这样做。

 

25曰道章第二十五The Unnamable Tao

有物混成,There was Something undefined and yet complete in itself,先天地生。Born before Heaven-and-Earth. 寂兮蓼兮Silent and boundless,独立不改,Standing alone without change,周行而不殆,Yet pervading all without fail,可以为天下母。It may be regarded as the Mother of the world.吾不知其名,I do not know its name;字之曰「道」;I characterixe  it Tao”;强为之名曰「大」。And,in the absence of a better word, call itThe Great“大曰逝。To be great is to go on,逝曰远。To go on  is to be far,远曰反。To be far is to return.故「道大,hence, Tao is great,天大,Heaven is great,地大,Earth is great王亦大」。King is great."域中有四大,而王居其一焉。the king is one of the great four in the Universe.人法地,Man follows the ways of the Earth,地法天,The Earth follows the ways of Heaven,天法道,Heaven follows the ways of Tao,道法自然。Tao follows its own ways.

{原文}

有物混成,先天地生。寂兮寥兮,独立而不改,周行而不殆,可以为天地母。吾不知其名,强字之曰:道,强为之名曰:大。大曰逝,逝曰远,远曰反。故道大,天大,地大,人亦大。域中有四大,而人居其一焉。人法地,地法天,天法道,道法自然。

[译文]

有一个东西混然而成,在天地形成以前就已经存在。听不到它的声音也看不见它的形体,寂静而空虚,不依靠任何外力而独立长存永不停息,循环运行而永不衰竭,可以作为万物的根本。我不知道它的名字,所以勉强把它叫做,再勉强给它起个名字叫做。它广大无边而运行不息,运行不息而伸展遥远,伸展遥远而又返回本原。所以说道大、天大、地大、人也大。宇宙间有四大,而人居其中之一。人取法地,地取法天,天取法,而道纯任自然。

 

26辎重章第二十六The Burden of Duty

重为轻根。Heaviness is the root of lightness,静为躁君。Serenity is the master of restlessness.是以圣人终日行不离赖重。Therefore the Sage, travelling all day Does not part with the baggage-wagon;虽有荣观,Though there may be gorgeous sights to see,燕处超然He stays at ease in his own home.奈何万乘之主,而以身轻天下?Why should a lord of ten thousand chariots Display his lightness to the world?轻则失本,To be light is to be separated from one's root.躁则失君。To be restless is to lose one's self-mastery.

{原文}

重为轻根,静为躁君。是以圣人终日行不离辎重,虽有荣观,燕处超然。奈何万乘之主,而以身轻天下?轻则失本,躁则失君。

[译文]

厚重是轻率的根本,静定是躁动的主宰。因此君子终日行走,不离开载装行李的车辆,虽然有美食胜景吸引着他,却能安然处之。为什么大国的君主,还要轻率躁动以治天下呢?轻率就会失去根本;急躁就会丧失主导。

 

27袭明章第二十七 Follow the Conscience

善行无橄迹。Good walking leaves no track behind it,善言无瑕谪。Good speech leaves no mark to he pickcd at善数不用筹策。Good calculation makes no use of counting-slips善闭无关楗而不可开。Good shutting makes no use of bolt and bar, And Yet nobody can undo it;善结无绳约而不可解。Good tying makes no use of rope and knot, And yet nobody can untie it.是以圣人常善救人,Hence,the Sage is always good at saving men故无弃人;And therefore nobody is abandoned;常善救物,Always good at saving things,故无弃物。And therefore nothing is wasted.是谓「袭明」。This is called ‘‘following the guidance of the Inner Light善人者,不善人之师。Hence good men arc teachers of bad men,不善人者,善人之资。While  bad men are the charge of good men.不贵其师,Not to revere one's teacher.不爱其资,Not to cherish one's charge,虽智大迷。This Is to be on the wrong road,however intelligent one may be.是谓要妙。This is an essential tenet of the Tao.

{原文}

善行,无辙迹;善言,无瑕谪;善数,不用筹策;善闭,无关楗而不可开;善结,无绳约而不可解。是以圣人常善救人,故无弃人;常善救物,故无弃物。是谓袭明。故善人者,不善人之师;不善人者,善人之资。不贵其师,不爱其资,虽智大迷,是谓要妙。

[译文]

善于行走的,不会留下辙迹;善于言谈的,不会发生病疵;善于计数的,用不着竹码子;善于关闭的,不用栓梢而使人不能打开;善于捆缚的,不用绳索而使人不能解开。因此,圣人经常挽救人,所以没有被遗弃的人;经常善于物尽其用,所以没有被废弃的物品。这就叫做内藏着的聪明智慧。所以善人可以做为恶人们的老师,不善人可以作为善人的借鉴。不尊重自己的老师,不爱惜他的借鉴作用,虽然自以为聪明,其实是大大的糊涂。这就是精深微妙的道理。

 

28常德章第二十八Walking the Path of Tao

知其雄,Know the masculine守其雌,Keep to the Feminine,为天下溪,And be the brook of the world为天下溪,To be the brook of the World is常德不离,To move constantly in the path of Virtue Without  swerving from it,复归于婴儿And to return again toinfancy.。知其白,Know the white,守其黑,Keep to the black为天下式。And be the Pattern of the World.为天下式,To be the Pattern of the World is常德不忒,To move constantly in the path of Virtue Without erring a single step,复归于无极。And to return again to the Infinite.知其荣,Know the glorious’守其辱,Keep to the  lowly,为天下谷。And be the Fountain of the World.为天下谷,常德乃足,To be the Fountain of the World is To live the abundant life of Virtue,复归于朴。And to return again to  Primal Simplicity. 幞散则为器When Primal Simplicity diversifies It becomes useful vessels,,。圣人用之则为官长。Which, in the handsof the Sage, become officers故「大制不割」。Hence, :a great  tailor does little cutting.

{原文}

知其雄,守其雌,为天下溪。为天下溪,常德不离,复归于婴儿。知其白,守其黑,为天下式,为天下式,常德不忒,复归于无极。知其荣,守其辱,为天下谷。为天下谷,常德乃足,复归于朴。朴散则为器,圣人用之,则为官长,故大制不割。

[译文]

深知什么是雄强,却安守雌柔的地位,甘愿做天下的溪涧。甘愿作天下的溪涧,永恒的德性就不会离失,回复到婴儿般单纯的状态。深知什么是明亮,却安于暗昧的地位,甘愿做天下的模式。甘愿做天下的模式,永恒的德行不相差失,恢复到不可穷极的真理。深知什么是荣耀,却安守卑辱的地位,甘愿做天下的川谷。甘愿做天下的川谷,永恒的德性才得以充足,回复到自然本初的素朴纯真状态。朴素本初的东西经制作而成器物,有道的人沿用真朴,则为百官之长,所以完善的政治是不可分割的。

 

29慎身章第二十九The Scrupulous Effect

将欲取天下而为之,Does anyone want to take the world and do what he wants with it?吾见其不得已。I do not see how he can succeed.天下神器,不可为也,The worldis a sacred vessel, which must not be tamperedWith or grabbed after.为者败之,执者失之。To tamper with it is to spoil it, and to grasp it is to lose it.是以圣人无为,Therefore the Sage would do nothing.故无败,Hence no failure故无失。Hence no loss,故物或行或随;In fact, for all things there is a time for going ahead,and a time for following behind;或觑或吹;A timefor slow-breathingand a time for fast-breathing;或强或羸;A time to grow in strength and a time to decay;或载或隳。A time of secured and a time of ruined.是以圣人去甚、去奢、去泰。Therefore, the Sage avoids all extremesexcesses and extravagances.

{原文}

将欲取天下而为之,吾见其不得已。天下神器,不可为也,不可执也。为者败之,执者失之。是以圣人无为,故无败,故无失。故物或行或随;或觑或吹;或强或羸;或载或隳。是以圣人去甚、去奢、去泰。

[译文]

想要治理天下,却又要用强制的办法,我看他不能够达到目的。天下的人民是神圣的,不能够违背他们的意愿和本性而加以强力统治,否则用强力统治天下,不能够违背他们的意愿和本性而加以强力统治,否则用强力纺治天下,就一定会失败;强力把持天下,就一定会失去天下。因此,圣人不妄为,所以不会失败;不把持,所以不会被抛弃。世人秉性不一,有前行有后随,有轻嘘有急吹,有的刚强,有的赢弱;有的安居,有的危殆。因此,圣人要除去那种极端、奢侈的、过度的措施法度。

 

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