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2015-09-02 14:21:16|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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烛不见跋-即不要见到照明物的灰烬,古以火炬、油明’跋即照明物的残本。本句是说在灯盏没有燃尽之前,要相机告辞。When paying a visittake leave of your host before you outstay your welcome

在所尊敬的客人面前,不要叱喝驱狗。 Dont shout at the dog in front of a respectable guest

还有孩子,也不要叱喝。Dont shout at children either

主人奉上的食物,即使不可口,也不要嫌。Even if the food prepared by your host is not to your tastedo not show your dislike

味道不错。Tastes are OK

陪伴尊长者谈话,若是见到尊长者打呵欠、伸懒腰、摆弄拐杖和鞋子、看时间的早晚,侍坐者就要告辞退出了。During a conversation with an elderly personif he begins to yawnstretch his limbs play with his walking stick or shoeor look at the timethen it is time to take your leave

陪伴长者,如长者忽然问到另一件事,则要起立回答, 表示重视和敬意。When you are keeping an elderly person companyit that person asks you something newyou are supposed to stand up before giving your answer to show that you are serious and respect him

陪伴尊长,如果有人进来说:打扰一下,有事汇报。侍坐者就应退避到一旁静候。If you are keeping an elderly person company and someone interrupts to report something Then you should move to the side and wait in silence




()She  ()Ji

国君当为保卫社稷而死。The monarch shall die to defend the sheji (country)  

"社”,是为祭五土之神而设。“稷”是为祭五谷之神而设。稷非土无以生,土非稷无以见生生之效,故古人祭社必及稷。社稷不屋而坛,社坛在东,稷坛在西,象征国家。She refers to the altar erected to offer sacrifices to the god ot the five-colour lands; ji refers to the altar erected to offer sacrifices to the god of the five grains The sacrificial offering ceremony to both gods was always held at the same timewith the she altar in the east and the ji altar in the westTogether they represent the country

大夫当公而忘私(不死宗庙),为民而死。Senior officials shall work for the public interest and die for the people

士当为国尽职而死。Ordinary ofricials shall work diligently to fulfill their duties for the country until death




天子站在黑白相间的屏风前面,诸侯北向朝见天子称“觐”。天子站在正门当中,诸公东向,诸侯西向朝见天子,叫:朝”。 Dukes or princesare received by the Son of Heaven (the emperor) who stands in front or a black-ana-white screen in the north This is called jin If his majesty stands in the middle of the main entrance while dukes stand facing east and princes stand facing westtnis is called chao

诸候未到约定的时间相见称为“遇”。在两国中间之地相见称为“会”。When a duke encounters another duke before the time of appointment it is called yuWhen they meet at a place between two countriesit is called hui

诸侯派遣大夫访问诸侯称为“聘” When a duke despatches a senior official to pay a visit to another dukeit is called pin

写下彼此共同遵守的条约称为“誓”。The writing of an agreement that both sides will adhere to is called shi


Having an ox killed and wiping its blood on lips as a guarantee that you will keep your promise is called meng




天子的配偶称为“后”。妃即天子的配偶,后即天子的正妻。The emperor's spouse is called hou

诸侯的配偶称为“夫人”。夫即扶意。 A duke's spouse is called furen

大夫的配偶称“孺人”。孺即属意。 A senior ofricial's spouse is called ruren


A scholar's soouse is called furen

庶人的配偶称为“妻”。妻即齐意。 A common rok s spouse is called qi




一般相见时所用的礼品是:天子以黑黍所酿,芳香的具有调下之功的鬯酒。Gifts are presented when people meet: the Son of Heaven presents as a fine wine made from millet

和以郁金之草称郁鬯,不以郁和则直称为鬯。 Tumeric may or may not be added to the wine

诸侯用命圭以示身份。Dukes and princes present jade tablets to show their status

卿用羔羊,取其群而不党、洁白清素之意。Ministers present lambs because lambs never form a clique to pursue selfish interests Furthermorethe white of the lamb's coat is considered a sign of integrity


Other senior officials present wild geese because they are punctual and orderly in flight

士用雉鸡,取其性之耿介,且文饰华美。Scholars present pheasants because they are upright with beautiful feathers

它被捉后就会不食而死。When a pheasant is caughtit refuses to eat and therefore dies of hunger

庶人则用鸭,取不能飞腾,如庶人之终守耕稼。Common folks present ducks because they cannot flyjust like the peasant who has to till the land all his life

儿童随其所有,但不敢与成人为礼,只将礼物放于地上, 便可告退。Children present whatever they have But they do not present gifts to adults They just leave their gifts on the ground and walk away

妇人相见时的礼品为橡子、榛子、肉干、枣子、栗子,以示诚意。When women meetthey present acornshazelnutsjerkydates and chestnuts as an expression or sincerity

在野外军中,找不到合适的礼物,用缨络、皮护袖、箭矢即可。When you are with the troops out in the battlefield and can not find a suitable giftyou can use tasselfur oversleeveor arrows instead



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