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2015-09-02 17:19:30|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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中国有礼义之大,故称夏;有服章之美,谓之华。作为传统文化的元素,“礼”为整个中华民族构筑了独具特色的价值体系,为我们提供了行为与思维的准则。China is sometimes referred to as Xia because of its rites; it is also referred to as Hua because of its fine clothing and beautiful jade designs As the foremost element of traditional culturerites formed a distinctive system of values for the Chinese nation and provided norms for our actions and thoughts

一方面,它对社会具有协调和稳定的重要作用。On the one handrites play the important role of coordinating and stabilizing society

君止于仁Monarchs were supposed to be benevolent

臣止于敬Officials were required to be respectful

父止于慈,子止于孝。A father was supposed to be merciful and loving while a son was supposed to be filial

人与人之间止于信。 People were expected to be trustworthy

言必信,行必果。To keep wordsand therefore resolute in deeds

即“礼”对人是一种约束。 Rites were a restriction to people

另一方面,“礼”又是达到“仁”这一理想和境界的载体,即人格提升和完善的必要途径。而人格完善则是儒家的毕生追求,即终极目的。On the other handrites were the medium through which one attained the ideal and the superior realm of ‘‘ benevolence,,In other wordsit is the path one has to travel if he wants to build and improve his character For Confucianiststhe improvement of one's character is a lifelong pursuit and an ultimate goal

这个终极目的不是禁欲中的彼岸,也不是苦海里的涅盘,而是对自我本性的回归,对自然法则的皈依。是人与人、与物、与自然之间无可名状的和谐与融洽。The ultimate objective is not the other shore to be reached when practicing asceticism Nor is it a nirvana in the void of misery Ratherit is a return to one's very nature and a regression to the natural laws It is the inexplicable harmony between one person and anotherbetween man and animalsbetween man and nature

所以“仁”又不仅指同情和友爱,还同时被赋予 了心灵归宿的终极内含。Besides the implication or sympathy and brotherhoodbenevolence also has the attribute of being the ultimate sanctuary of the mind

就一个民族而言,没有一个众望所归的信念与原则是难以想象的,数千年来,恰恰是“礼”为我们提供了具有普遍意义的价值观、伦理观、道德观、人生观。它曾赋予了我们艺术化的语言,仪式化的举止,和谐融洽的环境,以及自信恢弘的气度。It is inconceivable for a nation not to have a faith or principle with widespread support Over the past several thousand yearsrites have provided us with valuesethicsmorals and a world outlook in general They give us an artistic languageceremonious bearingharmonious environmentand a confident and noble manner

对个人来说,“礼”则为人们设计了一条提升个人尊严,实现自我价值,让一生过得从容,使心灵找到家园的蹊径通衢。For individualsrites provided the path on which one could enhance one's self-esteemrealize one's valueslead a peaceful life and find a home for one's heart

按“礼”的精神去生活,依自然的 法则来做事,就随时可以步入这 一境界。Lead your life in the spirit of rites and do things in accordance with natural lawsand you will enter this realm with ease

《礼记》中为“礼”下定义的地方很多,但最重要的一个原则是取法天地,效仿自然。 There are many parts in The Book of Rites that give definitions to rites Yet the most important principle is to follow the examples of heaven and earth and imitate nature

然后将人的行为、思维,乃至上层建筑的所有 领域都自觉地纳入其中。这一点与“天人合一” 的世界观是一致的。Vith itman s actionsthinking and all realms of the superstructure will be automatically included In this regard it is in conformity with the world outlook that man is an integral part of nature。,’

<<河图洛书>>就是对宇宙功能的总体把握, 对自然谱系的实录,是中华文明的统一场。 The River Diagram and the Luo scripture were about how to have a general command of the functions of the universeIt is a factual record of the natures system of change and development It is the coherence of Chinese civilization

所以“礼”又是不与人的本性相悖离的,因为“礼也者,理也”。在儒家的学说中,“礼”的本质是可以用数学语言来描述的,因而就原理而言,“礼”中不包含有超自然的因素。lerefore rite is not contrary to human naturesince it is a system based on rational knowledge According to Confucian theoriesthe nature of rite can be described by using numerical language So as far as the tenet is concernedrite does not ntain supernatural elements

正是赖于“天人合一”世界观的指导,“礼”才可以从道德这一层面得到提升,进而兼具宗教的统摄功能。 Because of the guiding principle of the world outlook that ‘‘man is an integral part of nature,” rite is elevated from the level of morality to have the additional commanding function of religion

这是由于道德常常是乏味的、缺乏约束力的。 This is because morality is often boring and in lack of binding force

而对自然的敬畏和伺身本性的感悟则会 使人自觉地克勤克俭,无出其外。 The fear of nature and the awareness of one's innate self will make one work hard and live a prudent life without going beyond the limits

以自然立约,铸人生法度。 Following nature to set out the moral standards of life

因而在以宗教作为灵魂主宰的世界各民族当中,唯独中华民族选择了 “礼”,这一充满理性精神、体现自然法则的机杼,用以维系天地之间。Almost all nationalities in the world use religion as the governing force of people's soulsbut the Chinese people have chosen rite a concept full of rational spirit and reflecting the laws of nature — as the union of everything between heaven and earth   

由此可见,作为涵盖面更广的固有文化,《礼记》中的“礼”和我们现在通常所讲的礼貌、礼节等含义是不尽相同的。如 果以此来衡量周代的“礼”,就会有许多问题找不到答案。We can see that as part or an indigenous culture that covers a much wider rangerite as described in The Book of Rites is not quite the same thing as manners or etiquette that we refer to today If we used today's definition of li (rite) to judge the rite of the Zhou Dynastywe would be unable to come up with answers to many questions

而这恰恰可以使我们追溯今日的许多社会现象,乃至整个民族的心路历程,甚至影响到我们对未来生活的判断。 By studying The Book of Rites we can observe many social phenomena of today and trace the course of development of our nation It will also influence our judgment on our lives in the future。。


同时,它所形成的众多典故为我们提供了丰富的常识 与知识,可以用来提高我们的文化素养。 In additionmany of the literary allusions from this book provide information about a wide range of thingsadding to our cultural attainment

而其所汇集的许多对自然与社会的真知灼见,则更是对民族 自信心的回归与重塑大有助益。MoreoverThe Book of Rites contains many deep insights into nature and societywhich will help the Chinese people regain and rebuild their confidence as a nation

两千多年来,中国的仁人志士无不以此作为“修身、齐家、治国、平天下”的思想知识渊薮,它所代表的价值标准和 思想观念,早已渗透到社会的各个阶层和角落,溶进了民族的血液之中。历史上,特别是近代以来,尽管人们对其褒 贬有加,但它对于国家的凝聚、民族的复兴、人格的完善而言,还是无可替代的,认识到这一点,就可以发掘《礼记》这一文化宝藏了。For more than 2000 years in Chinapublic-spirited people who follow the Confucian proverb ‘‘cultivate yourselfput your family in orderrun the local government welland bring peace to the entire country,,all considered The Book of Rites the source of ideas and knowledge The values and ideology it represents have permeated all social stratums and have been ingrainED into the minds of the nation Although historically people have had different opinions about the value of the book — especially in modern history when some people expressed negative opinions about the book — it is still irreplaceable in terms of the unity of the countryrejuvenation of the nation and improvement of one's character With this in mindwe can begin to examine The Book of Ritesthe cultural treasure of ancient China



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